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Tourism and the Environment:

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Naomi Gasparac

on 7 November 2013

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Transcript of Tourism and the Environment:

Gender, Technology & Livelihoods
-most of the worlds poor are women
- These women are responsible for meeting needs of family
-women tend to be the caregivers

The tourism/environment nexus
Tourism and the Environment
-must find environmentally sustainable ways to have tourism
-tourism can be harnessed as a development process
Sustainable Tourism:
-sustainable tourism can contribute to sustainable environment
Livelihood strategy and their environmental impacts:
Rural vs. Urban
-rural people affected more/sooner by environmental degradation than urban population
-technology can be harmful or beneficial
Ex. Subsistence vs. industrial farming
-capitalist system often heightens environment problems because resources are not sustainable
-conservation vs. livelihood is an old debate
-there is much resistance to degradation
-affluent societies must change
Why is it hard to manage environmental impacts of tourism?
Poverty & Gender
-gender plays a role in poverty and development
-when targeting poverty focus must be on women's livelihoods and the access they have to improved technology.

-There is a strong gender divide in the developing world
-Women are often doing key things to support their families, but don't have same access to resources or opportunities as men
-developers don't often recognize women because the men speak for them
-The crucial role of women is overlooked, making them voiceless and unable to improve their technology
Women & Livelihoods
-women take on broad range of tasks
-have wide range of skills
-many poor women spend a lot of time pregnant, so less time and energy to learn new things
-defined as "human skills, knowledge, organization as well as tools involved in production"
-lots of knowledge is passed mother - daughter or women -women
-women will make use of technical information and advances that are appropriate to their needs
- improving women's technology can have a positive effect on the entire household.
-biomass example
Participation & Change
-NGO's must take a participation approach when improving technology for poor people
-poor women must be involved at all stages of development at their place, pace and in their language
-new technology has to be an obvious improvement, not a burden, and culturally acceptable
-hard to separate how much tourism affects the environment from other factors
-absence of data
-environmental impact is an effect on the whole ecosystem
-circular relationship between tourism and environment
-impacts vary over time/place
Non-Industrial Society
Slow rate of change; Generational Knowledge passed down though small groups of families may not be subject to much change.
Systems of Production not based on accumulation
Nature-society Equilibrium; Societies are in harmony with their local environment.
Types of Non Industrial Society
Hunter Gatherer: Lives off the land. Forages for natural sources of food, also will hunt animals for meat, hides, etc.

Pastoralism: Based on raising livestock for sustenance

Swidden, or Slash and Burn Agriculture involves clearing woodlands to create fields for short term planting. This often exhausts the land leading to semi regular migration habits.

Permanent Agriculture; Societies that have established permanent agriculture have settled into a rhythm of planting and harvesting, learning over time how to avoid exhausting the soil. Most often systems of irrigation and fertilization develop further encouraging population growth.
Commoditization & the Environment
Globalization and
Capitalism create market-driven economies. In the modern, global resource market, the Privatization of natural resources is necessary to continue supplying global markets. Without the consent of local population, resources vital to their livelihood are often sold as privately owned commodities.
Secure Livelihood
and Environmental Factors
Natural Environment Factors:

Air Quality
Water Quality
Availability of Shelter
Sustainability of Population

Social Environment Factors:
Personal Freedom
Social Status
Equality of Social hierarchy
Personal Economic Stability
Maslow's hierarchy of Needs
Urban and Rural Locations are subject to both social and natural environmental factors. however natural environmental factors impact those in rural areas more directly, while the opposite is true of urban populations
Commercialization and the environment
Altering the environment IE; Dams Deforestation, Agro-industry
Social issues, Culture Crime, inequality
Climate Change
The most recent Report by he International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2013) Suggests that, Due to human interaction with the global environment; specifically the process of burning hydrocarbons for fuel, has lead to ever-increasing levels of the greenhouse gas Carbon Dioxide in our atmosphere. This has led to rising average temperatures across the globe, increasing precipitation and rising sea-level. The more conservative projections show that sea levels will rise by atleast 0.15 meters by 2050, and atleast 0.25 - 0.3 meters by the yeaer 2100. These Numbers assume an extreme reduction in Carbon emmisisons.
An estimated 1-2 billion people world wide will be displaced by a sea-level rise of 1 meter by the end of the century.

Under 'business as usual' policies of industrialization and increasing carbon emissions, factoring in emerging economies like India and china, among many others, the IPCC report suggests that a One meter rise is very likely.

Acidification of the oceans due to the absorption of CO2 is beginning to wreak havoc on the delicate marine ecosystems. Coral reefs and many plankton species are reported to have declined dramatically in many areas, disrupting the lowest links of the food chain.
- both tourism and the environment are intricate systems
- actions taken in one part have consequences for other parts

Environmental impacts
Often due to infrastructure
-roads -resorts/hotels
-airports -restaurants
-shops -golf courses
Negative impacts of tourism on natural resources
- overuse of water resources
-pressure on local resources
- land degradation
Negative impacts of tourism on environment
- affects composition of floral & faunal species
- discharges into the sea
- increased pressure on endangered species
- precipitates erosion
- causes & increases various forms of pollution (air emissions, litter, sewage, oil & chemicals, noise & visual pollution
Sustainable development through tourism
Should result in:
- win-win scenario
- environmental protection resulting from and in improved local livelihoods
- continued profits for the tourism industry
- sustained visitor attraction and satisfaction

5 core principles;
1) nature based
2) ecologically sustainable
3) environmentally educative
4) locally beneficial
5) generate tourist satisfaction
-the way humans live affects environment
-many Aboriginal religions protect(ed)/depend on environment
-Global South experiences detriments of industrialized society without being able to secure livelihoods
-centers dependent on other places interconnected environment impacts
-social/racial hierarchies affect where people live (poor people live in more polluted areas)

Participation and Change
Climate Change
Bolivian Water Crisis
Full transcript