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EN - Exposition EFIS - Bodyguards Immune System

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on 28 August 2014

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Transcript of EN - Exposition EFIS - Bodyguards Immune System

In the white cells family, here is the Lymphocyte, the smallest member, no bigger than 100th of a millimeter. Small but very strong at killing pathogens too! Like their big brother, they are able to move and check if there are enemies around.
This is a white cell. Without this kind of cell, our body wouldn’t be able to defend itself against germs, even against the trivial ones that cause cold. This specific white cell, recognizable by its petals, is called a “macrophage” and gets rid of enemies by swallowing them.
Most white cells are able to move. This is vital: they need to patrol inside the body for germs. Look at how they stretch to move.
In the family of white blood cells, here is the "lymphocyte", the smallest member, no bigger than 100th of a millimeter.
Small but very good at killing germs! Especially because it has an incredible memory for them, and upon subsequent exposure it can detect the invader immediately.
The effectiveness of the white cells family is built upon their ability to communicate with each other. Here is a small
« lymphocyte » (in front) interacting with its big brother the
« macrophage ».
If one of them detects an enemy, the alert signal is spread to the other white cells, and the defense begins.
There are not that many different kinds of immune system cells, but there are a lot of them. What’s more, they have a good memory and efficient weapons to recognize and kill germs.
Watch the battle, front row.

Thanks to their mobility these white cells can patrol the body searching for germs to destroy.

They check everything to see if there is any pathogen in your body or inside your cells.
Watch the video of a big macrophage in the left corner of the video checking two harmless cells.
Destroying germs is the main activity of macrophages in your body.

This is exactly what this cell (blue) is doing to the dangerous bacteria (yellow) it is swallowing them!
Here is another view of a macrophage embracing and eating a stick-shaped bacterium.
Once swallowed, the bacterium is broken into pieces and digested by the white cell.
The white cells have other ways of killing enemies than eating them. They can also directly shoot them and eliminate the threat.
Watch cancer cells being destroyed by white cells.
The Immune System is not invincible otherwise there would be no disease, no cancer, and no infection.
It is extraordinarily efficient, able to recognize a lot of different germs, but sometimes the enemies are stronger.

The little pods here budding from the surface of a cell are the deadly HIV viruses causing AIDS.
Even the white cells can be infected.
On the right a white cell (here a lymphocyte) is infected with the HIV, the virus causing AIDS. Normally it should detect its own infection and alert its fellow white cells. But the cell, blinded, acts as if it wasn’t infected. Here it is growing an arm that will transmit the virus to another white cell on the left, thus spreading the virus.

This is a sad scenario with no happy end, because the HIV virus will infect and destroy a major subset of the white cells leaving the body defenseless. In this immune deficient state, even a cold can kill you.
Hungry Knights
Always in motion
Self-control
Small but formidable
Patrolling the body
United family
Struggle for life
Breaking down
the germs
Big appetite
Sharp shooters
Nobody is perfect
Achilles heel
Look at what happens when your immune system is not working.

Here, the white cells are not functioning and an infection is killing the cells of this lung tissue. The cell’s death starts in the red circle and spreads incredibly fast.
Immune deficiencies can be caused by germs like the AIDS virus, but also by some genetic disorders.
System Failure
Like their big brother, the “macrophage”, “lymphocytes” too are able to move and check if there are enemies around.
Watch one of them moving around a big cell to see if there is any infection or abnormalities.
Our immune system is not always victorious. Sometimes, we need the help of immunologists, field specialists, to combat diseases.

But in most cases, it wins the battle; otherwise we wouldn’t be here to talk about it.
When everything goes well, the result is fantastic : look at how the lung tissue is being repaired.
Happy endings
A macrophage, in the middle.
Dantchev, Dimitri ©Inserm

Macrophages in motion.
Pouchelet, Marcel ©Inserm
A Macrophage, (left) checking two cells (right)
Pouchelet, Marcel©Inserm
A lymphocyte, in the middle of red blood cells.
Dantchev, Dimitri ©Inserm
Two lymphocytes in the middle checking the left cell.
Pouchelet, Marcel ©Inserm
A lymphocyte, in the foreground, communicating with a macrophage in the background.
© Institut Pasteur
Ingestion of Bacteria (yellow) by a Macrophage (blue).
© Institut Pasteur
Ingestion of a bacterium (right side) by a macrophage (left side).
U65 © Inserm
White cells killing cancer cells.
Marcel Pouchelet ©Inserm
HIV viruses (little grey bubbles) budding from an infected cell.
Roingeard, Philippe ©Inserm
The infected lymphocyte (right) transmits the HIV virus to a naïve lymphocyte (left).
© Imagopole Institut Pasteur
Infection (in black) of a lung tissue without defense, starting in the red circle.
Zahm, Jean-Marie© Inserm
Lung tissue repair
Zahm, Jean-Marie ©Inserm
You don’t notice it, but every day your body struggles against a world of enemies. Your bodyguards are called white blood cells, and form a line of defense named the “Immune System”.
Meet your Bodyguards.

Exit to get inside the world of germs, and learn to recognize your enemies.
The immune system can destroy a lot of different germs: bacteria, viruses, parasites… But the white cells can also eliminate cancer cells!

Here the white cells outlined in red, are digesting cancer cells (yellow).

Cancer cells are abnormal cells which might appear in your body, but the white cells can recognize them as dangerous and eliminate them!
Dendritic cells (red) ingesting cancer cells (yellow). The nucleus of the cell is labeled in blue.
Valladeau, Jenny ©Inserm
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