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HP Societies in Crisis WHAP
Transcript of HP Societies in Crisis WHAP
Crisis in the ottoman: From empire to state
Weak sultans led to power struggles b/t rival ministers, Janissary corps.
Artisans losing business to EUR, led to revolts. Merchants more dependent on EUR goods, which accelerated the problem.
Internal probs made OTT behind in military tech.
RU took a lot of land on Black Sea. This led to many Balkan states revolting for independence. Greece in 1830, Serbia in 1867.
Qing is Crumbling: Rebellions
Asia in Crisis
Russia: Of Czars and Serfs
End of the Czars?
AP World History
Reform and Survival
Repression and Revolt
Egypt: Making a Splash!
Mahdist Revolt in Sudan
Qing in Crisis: Opium Wars
I got 99 problems, and Europe is most of them
BR supported OTT so RU didn't gain Istanbul and control over Med.
Many divisions in OTT elite made reform difficult.
Selim III: 1789-1807, aimed at improving admin eff. and new military. Threatened Jan. who overthrew and killed him.
Mahmud II: Overthrew Jan. w/ private army. Focused on western reform w/ ambassadors and western military.
Tanzimat reforms: 1839-1876 western reforms aimed at OTT elite (universities, railroads, telegraph lines, and a Constitution) which improved rel. minorities in the empire.
Abdul Hamid: 1878-1908, absolutist rule, undid Tanzimat reforms, but still westernized military, built railroad and telegraph lines.
Overthrown in 1908 by a coup from the Young Turks.
Promised to bring back constitution, freedom of press, women's rights! But... they got caught up in faction fights, lost Libya to Italy, fought with Arabs under their control....
And then WWI happened.
Muhammad Ali gained control of EG in 1805 after FR (NAP) left. Viceroy (real power), but tech. under OTT rule.
Industrialized EG, and expanded cotton production (to sell to BR)
Worked w/ FR to build Suez Canal, went bankrupt, so sold it to BR (stocks) and led to BR naming EG a protectorate (basically a colony) in 1882.
Spent money on fruitless military campaigns in Sudan.
al-Afghani and Muhammed Abduh embraced Western science and tech.
Sudan often clashed with EG to the North.
Muhammad Ahmed led a religious revolt to rid Sudan of outside influence on Islam in 1870s.
Sudanic Sufi brotherhood, claimed descendent from Muhammad.
Khalida Abdallahi built a strong expansive state w/ Islamic law enforced.
Successful until BR defeated them w/ superior weapons in 1898.
1773-1838= MASSIVE Opium Trade. So bad, Manchu Emperor forbade the sell of it. BR went to war for the profit.
Opium War: 1839-1842, CH overwhelmed by BR navy and forced to sign Treaty of Nanjung
unequal treaty, where BR expanded trade in CH and continued to sell Opium.
went further in 1843 and took Hong Kong as a colony, and in 1844 forced CH to allow Christian missionaries back in.
SECOND Opium War: 1856-60. BR won, again. Opened all CH up to Euro trade
Opium Wars made CH look weak to foreigners and people within CH, leading to internal rebellions (who saw that coming?!)
White Lotus Rebellions: Buddhists frustrated over taxes and gov't corruption.
Taiping Rebellion: religious zealot, thought he was the bro of Jesus, amassed a million men army and almost overthrew the Qing (helped out by the Brits).
Promoted a proto-communism and equal gender rights.
1876-1895: Lost Korea, Vietnam, and Taiwan.
Spheres of Influence: areas of Eur investment, military, business, transport, and communication.
1900 US created Open Door Policy: afraid of CH becoming another India
Anti-foreign movement erupted in northern China.
Led by militia organizations calling themselves the Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists, the “Boxers” killed numerous Europeans and Chinese Christians and laid siege to the foreign embassies in Beijing.
Western powers and Japan occupied Beijing to crush the rebellion and imposed a huge payment on China as a punishment and apologize (Boxer Protocol).
US Commodore Matthew Perry opened Japan in 1853. The Tokugawa Shogunate ratified unequal treaties for US trade.
Samurai were resentful, revolted and restored Emperor Meiji to power.
Meiji Restoration westernized JP: 1870s built railways and steamships, 1876 abolished samurai class, and universal military service established.
This change led to a national identity tied to military and celebrated JP victories over CH and RU.
Military power led to equal trade treaties w/ US and EUR.
Last we saw RU, we had just moved in to age of Czars w/ the Romanovs.
Remember, they aren't good to serfs- use secret police.
1860s, Alexander II FINALLY emancipates serfs. But.... given tiny land plots AND had to pay a lot of money to keep the land.
Some peasants went to work in cities w/ factories, but no safety codes like EUR, so very difficult. Either way, peasants had it rough, which primed them for Socialism.
Very small middle class grew- Tolstoy's War and Peace, Tchaikovsky's Swan Lake and Nutcracker, and a new intellectual class (People's Will) which assassinated Alexander II.
Alexander III starts Russification- had to learn Russian, convert to RU Orthodoxy. Persecuted those who didn't (especially Jews).
even WORSE conditions for peasants in factories.
By the time of Nicholas II (1894-1917), Socialists started to organize.
Tried to rally RU around nationalism by going to war with JP, but they lost....
Bloody Sunday (1905): moderates peaceful protest for Enlightenment reforms, but Nick ordered troops to fire.
Appointed a Prime Minister (Peter Stolypin) and created a Duma to represent the people.
But... if it was critical of czar, he just disbanded it.