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Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development

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Nadine Saidi

on 9 May 2013

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Transcript of Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development

(Berger, 1980) Piaget’s theory of Cognitive Development Infancy Discovery learning: child initiated, and direct effort
Inquiry learning: more effective reasoning process (linking math to life situations)
Conformation bias: misinterpret what they observe. Children can learn through hands-on experiences What Do You Think? Pease & Pease (2002) Research has shown that the right hemisphere of the female brain tends to grow more rapidly than their male counterparts. Female communication patterns tend to focus on being respectful, nurturing, and indirect.

"Rapport" type talk. Research has also shown that the left hemisphere of the male brain has been found to grow earlier in age than in females. Boys tend to be more direct, honest and factual when communicating.

"Report" type talk. Outline

key ideas of Piaget’s theory
Cognitive development stages
Current perspectives of Piaget’s theory
The neo-Piagetian theories
Conclusion http://edendavis3312.wordpress.com/category/uncategorized/ Key ideas of Piaget’s theory Optimistic view of children’s way of learning and thinking
Motivated to learn, manipulate their environment and actively try to make sense of their behavior and their world.

(Example: child, bread and stick)

Schemas and categories organize children’s experiences
Figurative: Basic properties
Operative: Logical connections
At first concrete and behavioral but eventually turn out to be more mental and abstract

(Example: children: concept of grasping in many different situations vs. teenagers reason and use their logical thinking about social, political and moral issues)

operations = cognitive structures that govern children’s logical reasoning Introduction Behaviorsism, Social-CoginitveThoery, Cognitivism
Piaget(Switzerland), Vygotsky (Russia)
Etiology of thinking and knowledge
Age and experience affect thinking
Main interest was on children (Claman, 1980) -Stress: Twitching, fidgeting, pulling hair, tapping, shifting position, biting/sucking/licking, rigidity/tensing up, and self-soothing movements.

-Physical disengagement: Shrinking, closing off, looking away, covering, getting up, and turning away.

-Emotions: Anger, fear, sadness, shame, disgust, smiling/laughter, and happiness. Environment plays a crucial role in children’s learning
Two complementary processes allow children to adapt to their environment:
Assimilation: Existing schemes applied to new similar situations
Accommodation: Modify existing schemes or even create some new ones
Equilibration: equilibrium Disequilibrium equilibrium
Equilibrium: Feeling at ease using existing schemes and applying those to new experiences
Disequilibrium: Uncomfortable using their present knowledge and skills
bringing assimilation and accommodation into balance Concepts to be understood Puzzling phenomena can create disequilibrium and motivate the child to acquire new understandings Males Females Pease & Pease (2002) (Katz, Malloya, Lamba, Atabakia & Spindlera, 2012) Review: 10 key points to remember when communicating with parents (PRN Health Services, 2012) (Katz, Hershkowitzb ,Malloya, Lamba, Atabakia & Spindlera, 2012) Key ideas of Piaget’s theory (cont'd) Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development 1- Sensorimotor stage (Birth until 2 Years Old) Schemes primarily entail perceptions and behaviors.
Children’s understandings are based largely on their physical interaction with it. 2- Preoperational Stage (Age 2 Until about 6-7 Years Old) Many schemes now have a symbolic quality, in that children can think and talk about things beyond their immediate experience.

Children begin to reason about events. Although not always in ways that are ‘logical’ by adult standards. 3- Concrete Operations Stage (Age 6-7 until about 11-12 Years Old) Children acquire cognitive structures that enable them to reason in logical, adult-like ways about concrete reality-based situations.

Children also realize that their own perspectives are not necessary shared by others. 4- Formal Operations Stage (Age 11-12 Through Adulthood) Children can now think logically about abstract, hypothetical, and contrary-to-fact situations.

Children acquire many capabilities essential for advanced reasoning in mathematics and science. Piaget’s ideas that stood the test of time : Children actively seek information about the world and construct their own understanding of it

Children must relate new experiences to what they already know

When children encounter puzzling phenomena, they must sometimes revise their understanding Current Perspectives on Piaget’s Theory Piaget’s theory has inspired a great deal of research about cognitive development Piaget’s greatest contribution was the nature of the research questions he asked to try to answer how children think and reason Sequence of the stages is supported, but the ages coinciding with each stage is debated. Contemporary researchers question the ages at which various abilities actually appear
Children’s logical reasoning capabilities may vary considerably depending on their previous experiences, knowledge and cultural background.
Most contemporary researchers seriously doubt that cognitive development is stage-like as Piaget suggested.
Piaget may have overemphasized the importance of interaction with the physical environment. Capabilities of Different Age Groups Sensorimotor Stage:

Infants are more competent than Piaget’s descriptions

Infants show signs of object permanence as early as 2 ½ months old

Infants younger than 8 months of age are capable of some degree of imitation

Carolyn Rovee-Collier: Infants’ memory is better than what Piaget claimed

Infants (12 months) who haven’t developed language yet can still communicate about objects and events they aren’t currently perceiving or experiencing. Preoperational Stage:

Toddlers and pre-schoolers are more capable than Piaget believed

Pre-schoolers don’t always show egocentrism

children as young as 2 or 3 years of age seem to have some ability to understand that other people may see or feel things differently

John Flavell: two levels of perspective-taking thinking that a child can undertake

LEVEL 1: child is aware that other people experience something different than they do
LEVEL 2: child figures out and is able to understand other people’s experiences Concrete Operational Stage:

Piaget has underestimated the capabilities of elementary school children
Many elementary children show skills beyond the concrete operational stage
Some show ability to understand and use simple proportions
A child develops different strategies and may use some or all the strategies on different problems throughout the day. Formal Operational Stage:

Piaget might have overestimated what adolescents can do
Formal operational thinking processes develop much more gradually than Piaget suggested
Not all adults attain this level of thinking
Adults’ logical thinking can be disrupted by previous experience and their existing knowledge, thus having equal difficulty separating logic from reality as children in the concrete operations stage
Piaget’s formal operations stage appears to reflect an adult’s abilities and competences under the best conditions rather than everyday life. Effects of Experience and Prior Knowledge Piaget overvalued maturation's importance when it came to logical thinking
Training children, along with experience, can help improve children’s logical thinking and acquire reasoning skills sooner than Piaget suggested
Piaget focused too much on the individual's internal search for knowledge, and forgot about the child’s external motivation and teachings
Instructions can really help enhance a child’s thinking Effects of Culture Piaget did not give importance to culture as a factor influencing cognitive development
Culture and cultural groups play an important role in the development of a child’s thinking
Different cultures provide children with different experiences
Mexican children learn the concept of conservation earlier than other children
Formal operations are found more among youths and adults in Western and other industrialized culture Neo Piagetian thoery Piaget’s ideas + information processing notions Central Ideas Mental capacity is determined by brain maturation such as myelination and mental rehearsal
Cognitive development is determined by maturation of cognitive processes in the brain
children have limits to what they can acquire at a certain age
children’s acquisition of new skills and knowledge can be done through little or no awareness
children’s learning can be done through complete awareness
Individual differences in cognitive development
Children develop more specific cognitive processes that could be applied solely to specific tasks or fields
Children learn new abilities and skills when they get to a new stage
A formal way of teaching can have a significant impact on children’s mental growth Robbie Case’s Theory Central Conceptual Structures:
Applied only till age 10 New Stage

Integrated systems/mental processes as the basis of children’s thinking, reasoning and learningCentral conceptual structures for number, space and social thinking Central conceptual structure for numbers children’s abilities to reason and control mathematical measures.

central conceptual structure for space constructing and using spatial maps, drawing etc

central conceptual structure for social thinking children’s abilities to think about interpersonal relationships and understand social scripts can Example of central conceptual structure for number:
children’s abilities to reason and control mathematical measures At the age of 4:

Children are able to tell visually the difference between what is less or what is more At the age of six:

Count verbally and write numbers
Start counting by touching objects, and eventually shifting to mental counting
Count through the use of their fingers
Know that moving from one number to another involves addition or subtraction depending on the direction of the scale At the age of eight
children are able to tell which number is bigger as well as they’re able to tell what number is closer to another number
able to compare number of the ones columns and numbers of the tens column At the age of 10
Children are able to tell “which number is bigger; the difference between eleven and three or the difference between nine and three?” Preschool Elementary School Reaching Puberty Ex: light vs. heavy objects.
Conceptual Change: revising existing schemas. Interactions with peers can promote more advanced learning Children are closer to one another than an adult to a child.
learn that others view the world very differently and there ideas aren’t always logical.
Sociocognative Conflict disequilibrium reevaluate their current perspective Children are more able to reason when they work with familiar topics It is easier for a child to build newly acquired information if they already are acquainted with previous basic information.
Children will display the use of advanced reasoning skills
Catching fish or not Piaget’s clinical method can give an insight to the child’s reasoning process Inclusion
Control of variables
Proportional reasoning

These tasks would give an insight to students’ thinking and reasoning. Piaget’s stages can be used as guidance Every stage has its conflict and argument
BUT can provide a rough idea about the reasoning skills acquired by children in various ages.
Also the stages can provide strategies that are effective in teaching children in various levels. Children can only succeed in a particular domain only if they mastered the basic and central concepts of that domain The child enters school with no explicit knowledge about the concept of numbers, then the teacher starts connecting the shape and the object with the quantities and the concept of quantity. Nadine Dibo
Nadine Saidi
Melissa Sahyoun
Bayan Ashour
Nour Farhat
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