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Learning Theory Analysis
Transcript of Learning Theory Analysis
Vanessa Malone Learning Theory Analysis Theorist: B.F. Skinner Behaviorism Behaviorism Major Tenets: Types of
Classroom Organization: Type of Assessments: Appropriate Technology: Biblical Critique: Theorist: Jean Piaget Cognitive Development Piaget (Cognitive Development) Major Tenets: Direct Instruction
Small and Large Groups Types of Teaching Methods: Classrooms should be arranged in clusters of small groups of six desks so that small group discussions can take place as well as projects.
There should also be visuals that show how certain things are categorized.
There should be activities that involve seriation, transitivity, and brainstorming.
There classroom would be colorful and visually stimulating.
A project that involves conversation between students should be used. Classroom Organization: KWL charts to see what the students know, what they would like to know, and what they have learned.
Projects to assess what stage of operation the students are in.
A unit test to assess the student's knowledge of concepts. Type of Assessment: Appropriate Technology: John 14:6 "I am the way, the truth, and the life."
John 8:32 "You shall know the truth and the truth shall set you free."
Piaget viewed moral nature as good and interactive. Biblical Critique: Theorist:
Lev Vygotsky Social Constructivist To find out what Vygotsky's Major Tenet's are Please click "Play" to watch "Everyone wants to learn about Vygotsky"
Specially made for Dr. Harrell! Lev Vygotsky (Social Constructivist)
Major Tenets: Teacher’s need to get in the zone!
Teach according to a classes Z.P.D.
(learning and tasks are neither too easy nor too difficult for the students). Types of Teaching Methods: Teacher is facilitator and guide, not director.
Classroom should be student-focused, not teacher focused.
Teacher should determine how to deliver instruction by each students Zone of Proximal Development levels.
Students and desks should be organized into flexible groups that change based on need, interest, ect. (Partner more advanced students in groups to promote peer-learning) Classroom Organization: Vygotsky did not think that formal, standardized tests were the best way to assess a child’s learning.
Rather, he believed that assessment should focus on determining the Child’s Z.P.D. (Zone of Proximal Development).
Children should be presented with tasks of varying difficulty to determine the best level to begin instruction.
Interview Assessments by the teacher
Essays and Free-writes Type of Assessments: Telecommunications tools such as e-mail and the Internet provide a means for dialogue, discussion, and debate -- interactivity that leads to the social construction of meaning.
Students can talk with other students, teachers, and professionals in communities far from their classroom (or with their classroom using online chat rooms available for teachers).
Telecommunications tools can also provide students access to many different types of information resources that help them understand both their culture and the culture of others. Appropriate Technology: Theorist:
Albert Bandura Social Cognitive Theory Bandura (Social Cognitive) Major Tenets: Types of Teaching Methods: Classroom Organization: Type of Assessments: Biblical Critique: Appropriate Technology: Information Processing Theory Retrival one three two Storage Encoding Information Processing Model Information Processing Major Tenets: Types of Teaching Methods: Type of Assessments: Biblical Critique: Appropriate Technology: Operant Conditioning Rat Experiment: Conditioning Theory:
-How human actions and attitudes are formed.
-Behaviors are formed from external environments.
Skinner was a radical; He believed an individual's response to environmental stimuli shapes our behaviors.
Was most known for the Rat and Pigeon experiment which he believed proved his theory of Operant Conditioning:
-Continuous reinforcement: Constant delivery for every action.
-Internal reinforcement: Reinforcement follows first response, but after a certain amount of time.
-Ratio Reinforcement: A set number of responses must occur before reinforcement. Direct Instruction
Small Groups Classrooms should be organized with desks all facing the front with space in between each desk so that the environmental stimuli is not distracting to students.
There could be "operant conditioning chambers" where the class could have classroom pets and learn from their reinforced behaviors. Presentations
All to assess learned knowledge In a "Behaviorism" Classroom There could be:
Ipod playing music to contribute to external stimuli learning
Computer activities to show previous experiments that have been conducted. Gal 6:7 "Be not deceived; God is not mocked: for whatever a man sows, that shall he also reap."
Gen 1:27 "So God created man in His own image, in the image of God created he him; make and female created he them."
Skinner viewed moral nature as neutral and passive, which is not biblical. The Processes children use as they construct their world are: Schemas, assimilation, accomodation, organization and equilibrium. Four Stages of Cognitive Development: 1) Sensimotor Stage (birth-2 years): Coordinating sensory experiences (hearing) with motor actions (touching).
2) Preoperational Stage (2-7 years):
a. Symbolic Function Substage( 2-4 years): Beginning of symbolic thinking.
b. Intuitive Thought Substage (4-7 years): Begin to use primitive reasoning and want to know answers to questions.
3) Concrete Operational Stage (7-11 years): Gain logical reasoning, classification skills present, understanding of reversibility (Liquid in glass example).
4) Formal Operational Stage (11-15 years): Think in abstract, idealistic, and logical ways. Schemas: actions or mental representations that organize knowledge (Behavioral and Mental)
Assimulation: incorporation of new information into existing schemas.
Accomodation: Adjustment of schemas to fit new information and experiences.
Organization: Organizing of experiences to make sense of the world (Grouping).
Equilibrium: Children's shifting from one stage to the next. Computers should be accessible for each student to observe the different operations and understand how they work.
A smart board would be a great way to display the concepts and show graphic organizers on psychology. Cooperative Learning- Students put into small groups of varying levels in order to maximize learning.
Direct Instruction-Students model the teacher and follow along with the teacher’s instruction. By doing so, the teacher can introduce a new idea or concept, model how it is to be done, and students can follow eventually completing the new idea or concept independently. Biblical Critique: Learning is achieved by how the teacher presents the material and helps guide students in learning. Every child is limited to a Zone of Proximal development that defines the highest level at which they are capable of learning-Learning is independent not dependent on God. “The fear of the LORD is the beginning of knowledge; Fools despise wisdom and instruction.”- Proverbs 1:7 Social and cognitive factors, as well as behavior, play important roles in learning.
Behavior, environment and person/cognitive factors are reciprocal in learning.
Self-Efficacy and reflection is important. Believing oneself can accomplish something is crucial to accomplishing it or learning it.
Observational learning is learning that involves acquiring skills strategies, and beliefs by observing others. Four processes need to be considered for observational learning; attention, retention, production and motivation. Modeling is an effective tool.
When students observe the teacher performing a new skill while describing it, they are prone to learn the skill more quickly. Students should be provided access to models of the knowledge, skills, and behaviors they are expected to learn. Teachers can organize the classroom to encourage positive parts of socialization. Live demonstrations of a behavior or skill by a teacher or classmate exemplify the common notion of modeling. Verbal or written descriptions, video or audio recordings, and other less direct forms are also forms of modeling. After modeling, some will be able to perform the skill quickly on their own, others may need more practice. This is where the social learning component is helpful. Working in groups, the students who have mastered the skill will model it for the ones who have not, enabling social learning. Set the classroom up as a learning community, include cooperative activities regularly and reinforce model behaviors by students I would have an assessment that tested some key features of Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory. This assessment would be an alternative assessment. Modeling is key to Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory, so I would have the students model information and try to teach it to a peer. This assessment also tests their retention, production and motivation, other key tenets of Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory. I would then have the student evaluate and reflect on how they performed. This is an example of utilizing self-efficacy. Finally, I would have the student reflect on the modeling of information taught to them, another example of self-efficacy which incorporates modeling techniques PowerPoint presentations.
Whiteboard. Models are key to Bandura's Social Cognitive theory. By following models, we can learn in the classroom. The Bible provides Christ as a role model to follow. By following the model of Christ, we can learn how to live a virtuous life. In this aspect, the Bible is supportive of Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory. Information Processing emphasizes that children manipulate information, monitor it, and use strategies for processing information. Memory and thinking are central to this theory. Children develop a gradually increasing capacity for processing information, which allows them to acquire increasingly complex knowledge and skills.
As children grow and mature, and as they experience the world their information processing abilities increase, influenced by concurrent increases in both capacity and speed processing. Both biology and experience contribute to growth in cognitive resources. The process of memorizing is a sequence; Sensory memory- just an instant. Short-term memory- up to thirty seconds. Long-term memory- up to a lifetime. The encoding of information can be taught through rehearsal, the conscious repetition of information over time to increase the length of time it stays in memory. Deep processing, tying a semantic event to some information. Elaboration, such as having students provide personal examples of information. Having students construct images, a form of elaboration. Organization information, such as "chunking" large amount of information into smaller more manageable information.
So, some strategies teachers can use is to have students remember and retrieve material is by having students understand it rather than memorizing it. Repeating information with variation and linking information so the number of mental associations increase. Teaching mnemonic strategies. Classroom Organization: Memory, especially in sensory and short-term is limited. As such, it is necessary for students to selectively focus their attention on important information and have them engage in automatic processing when possible. Teachers should organize their class so that they- Bring to mind relevant prior learning, (Review previous day's lesson. Have a discussion about previously covered content) Point out important information. (Provide handouts. Write on the board or use transparencies.) Present information in an organized manner. ( Show a logical sequence to concepts and skills. Go from simple to complex when presenting new material.) Provide opportunities for students to elaborate on new information. (Connect new information to something already known. Look for similarities and differences among concepts.) To determine how much and how thoroughly a student has processed information, I would have a test that would utilize varying techniques for memorization used in Information Processing. I would have a portion of a test that require them to simply recall information as learned through rehearsal. This could be a matching section and a fill in the blank section. Because organization was a key part in memorization, I would have a word bank and have students organize different words into categories. At this point, I would hope the students would have used the first parts of the assessments to recall and retrieve information. I would then have the students write a short essay where they could show they simply did not memorize, they understand and comprehend information, the highest level of the information processing spectrum. Lessons that utilize multimedia and words helps students retain more information than just word-based lessons. Including multimedia helps the brain connect new material to existing material in long-term memory. By adding onto material in long-term memory, students have to store less in their working memories, which allows them to process more information before becoming overloaded. Multimedia technology includes; Powerpoints. Audio files. Graphics Overhead projectors. Transparencies. Smartboards. Videos. Internet websites. Anything that will allow the student to connect the information to existing material and thus assist in moving it into the long-term memory. The Bible speaks of God's dealings with human beings. It does not go into detail about how the human body works. Information Processing theory asserts that people are capable of processing more information as they grow older and interact with the world and that both biology and experience contribute to growth in cognitive resources. The Bible shows that people can grow and learn more as they increasingly interact with Gods world and listen to absorb his words. Santrock, John W. Educational Psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2011. Print. References: Teacher Tips/Training. (2010) Retrieved September 2012. <http://suite101.com/article/social-cognitive-theory-in-a-k8-classroom-a186111 > PSYBibs. (2010). Retrieved September 2012. <http://psybibs.revdak.com/2010/kille.imitate_me.htm> Ehow.com. (2012). Retrieved September 2012. <http://www.ehow.com/about_5435919_social-learning-theory-bandura.html > Education.com. (2006). Retrieved September 2012. <http://www.education.com/reference/article/social-cognitive-theory/ > Education.com. (2006). Retrieved September 2012. <http://www.education.com/reference/article/information-processing-theory/ > EdPsychinteractive.org. (2003). Retrieved September 2012. http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/cognition/infoproc.html> Ehow.com. (2012). Retrieved September 2012. <http://www.ehow.com/info_7889701_information-processing-theories-classroom.html> Bible.org. (1995). Retrieved September 2012. <http://bible.org/article/relationship-behaviorism-neo-behaviorism-and-cognitivism-evangelical-bibliology> Wisegeek.com. (2003). Retrieved September 2012. http://www.wisegeek.com/what-are-some-different-teaching-methods.htm> Driscoll. Theories in Learning Educational Psychology. (2000). Retrieved September 2012. <www.lifecirclesinc.com/Learningtheories/social/Vygotsky.html> Educational Psychology 503