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The Urinary and Reproductive Systems

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Emily Calvert

on 8 November 2012

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Transcript of The Urinary and Reproductive Systems

The Reproduction
and
Urinary Systems Ange, Claire, Elizabeth, and Emily Take a trip
inside... The Human Body The Reproductive
and
Urinary Systems Ange, Claire, Elizabeth, Emily, and John The Urinary System The Reproductive
System Definition: A group of organs whose purpose is to allow procreation. Male Female Ovaries: Location: one on each side of the uterus
Function: Stores ovarian follicles that develop into eggs
Each month during ovulation, the ovaries release one egg to be fertilized Ovulation At puberty the ovaries and uterus become mature enough to respond to hormonal stimulants.
Triggers the hypothalamus in the nervous system to secrete hormones which enter the circulatory system.
Estrogen causes the follicle to proceed from the follicular phase to the ovulatory phase (menopause occurs when ovulation stops)
Then, the eggs are released into the Fallopian Tubes. Removes urea from the body
Urea is a chemical produced when the digestive system digests proteins; part of urine
Keeps chemicals in balance
The kidneys also regulate blood pressure and produce erythropoietin
Of Course, urinating Functions More Than Just Peeing... A pair of purple- brown organs found in the middle of the back below the ribs
They remove liquid waste from the blood, known as urine, keep a stable balance of salt and other substances, and produce erythropoietin
Have tiny filtering units known as nephrons to remove urea Kidneys Two tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder
Muscles push urine down away from the kidneys to the bladder Ureters A hollow, triangular organ that stores urine
Two sphincter muscles act like a rubber band at the bottom to keep urine from leaking
Nerves alert the brain when you need to urinate Bladder The tube that carries urine out of the body
A male's urethra is longer than a female's
UTI: Urinary Tract Infection; usually in the bladder or the urethra but can be anywhere in the system Urethra When urine is formed, it leaves through the kidneys and travels through the ureters to the bladder.
The brain signals the bladder muscles to tighten and the urine squeezes out.
Simultaneously, the sphincter muscles relax to let the urine out of the bladder, into the urethra, and out (hopefully) into the toilet. Works with the lungs, skin, and intestines to excrete wastes from the body
The kidney works with the circulatory system to cleanse the blood of wastes
Works with the nervous and muscular systems when you urinate
Anatomically, it shares the urethra with the reproductive system and the prostate in males. Urination Interactions Location: connects the ovaries to the uterus
Have small hair- like projections called cilia
Help move the egg through the tube to the uterus
Infections, endometriosis, tumors, and scar tissue can lead to an ecoptic pregnancy
Ecoptic Pregnancy: A pregnancy developing in the Fallopian tube or another abnormal location outside of the uterus Fallopian Tubes Known as the "womb"
Location: between the bladder and the rectum in the lower abdomen
The lining of the uterus is referred to as the endometrium.
When pregnant, the fertilized egg attaches itself to the endometrium.
The uterine cycle coincides with the ovulatory cycle as the endometrium sheds and repairs itself. Uterus Location: lower portion of the uterus which forms the neck of the uterus and opens into the vagina
Narrow opening referred to as the "os"
Allows menstrual flow to exit into the vagina and keeps the baby in the uterus during pregnancy
The cervix dilates in labor Cervix Location: The narrow muscular and elastic organ that leads to the cervix
Many confuse the vagina with the vulva (the outer area of the body)
Serves as the birth canal and the eliminator of the endometrium Vagina
Location: in the breasts; modified sweat glands
Allows mothers to produce milk and feed their young Mammary Glands Problems of the Urinary System Diseases: Hematuria, bladder infections, prostate cancer, kidney failure, and urinary incontinence
Cystitis - the inflammation of the urinary bladder
Nephritis - the inflammation of the kidneys
Nephrosis - disease of the kidney that is characterized by lesions of the epithelial lining of the renal tubules that result in disturbance in the filtration function and the consequent appearance of large amounts of protein in the urine
Urinary Tract Infection (UTI): Infection that begins in the urinary system and affects any part of the urinary system, but it usually involves the bladder and the urethra
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A benign (noncancerous) condition in which an overgrowth of prostate tissue pushes against the urethra and the bladder, blocking the flow of urine. Also called benign prostatic hypertrophy.
Hypogonadism: incompetence of the gonads (especially in the male with low testosterone); results in deficient development of secondary sex characteristics and (in prepubertal males) a body with long legs and a short trunk
Peyronie’s Syndrome: A plaque, or hard lump, that forms on the erection tissue of the penis. The plaque often begins as an inflammation that may develop into a fibrous tissue.

Cervical cancer: A potentially deadly uncontrolled growth of cells of the cervix, which is the neck of a woman's uterus.
Endometriosis: Endometriosis (from endo, "inside", and metra, "womb") is a gynecological medical condition in women in which endometrial-like cells appear and flourish in areas outside the uterine cavity, most commonly on the ovaries Problems of the Female
Reproduction System Problems of the Male
Reproductive System Interesting Facts About
Urination... Urine and Medicine... The Smell and Color of Urine... A pouch of skin located outside the body cavity into which the testes descend
Provides proper temperature for the testes Scrotum Location: in the scrotum
Produce testosterone and the male reproductive cells Testicles Location: A convoluted tubule in each testis
Carries sperm to vas deferens Epididymis Also called the Vas Deferens
Carries sperm from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct Ductus Deferens: Location: Just below the bladder
Produces a fluid that forms part of semen Prostate Gland Location: pair of glands that open into the vas deferens near its junction with the urethra
secrete many of the components of semen Seminal Vesicle Semen Seminal fluid is an alkaline substance.
Only 5% of the ejaculate is composed of sperm.
50- 150 million sperm per mL of semen Interesting Facts about the Male
Reproductive System... Interesting Facts about the Female
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