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What is Gender Mainstreaming?
Transcript of What is Gender Mainstreaming?
Is Patriarchy Capable of Change?
UNSC Resolution 1325 (2000)
Shift in thinking, recognised that men and women experience conflict and peace in different ways.
Recognised that women have an important part to play in facilitating peace and resolving conflict.
4 key areas of concern:
1. Promote the participation of women in the decision-making and peace processes
2. Integrate gender perspectives and training in peacekeeping
3. Protect women in armed conflict
4. Mainstream gender issues in UN reporting systems and programs related to conflict and peace building
UNSC Resolution 1820 (2008)
Increase concern of widespread and systematic use of sexual violence as a weapon of war.
Office of the Special Advisor on Gender Issues and Advancement for Women:
'Mainstreaming isn't an end in itself but a means to the goal of gender equality. Mainstreaming involves ensuring that gender perspectives and attention to the goal of gender equality are central to all activities - policy development, research, advocacy/dialogue, legislation, resource allocation, and planning, implementation and monitoring of programmes and projects'.
Gender Mainstreaming is a policy objective, aimed at integrating the gender perspective of men and women, to facilitate peace building and gender equality.
WOMEN & PEACEKEEPING
Women in UN Peace Operations
1 female head of mission (Liberia), 4 Deputies (Burundi, Chad, Liberia and Sudan)
1.9% of UN military personnel were women (1, 408 out of 73, 348)
7.3% of UN Police were women (865 out of 11, 182)
29.8% of international civilian staff were women
19.6% of nationally recurited civilian staff (total of 11, 501)
WIIS (Women in International Security) (2008)
Women in UN Peace Operations
UNDPKO: Of the 125, 000 peacekeepers, women constituted only 3% of military personnel and 10% of police personnel in UN Peacekeeping. In total, women make up roughly 29% of international and 17% of national staff
UNHQ: 48% of staff are women, 52% are men.
Where does patriarchy fit in?
Patriarchy: A system of society or government in which men hold the power and women are largely excluded from it.
Economic and Social Council Definition
'Gender Mainstreaming is the process of assessing the implications for women and men of any planned action, including legislation, policies or programs, in all areas and at all levels. It is a strategy for making women's as well as men's concerns and experiences an integral dimension of the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of policies and programmes in all political, economic and societal spheres so that women and men benefit equally and inequality isn't perpetuated. The ultimate goal is to achieve gender equality.' [ESC Agreed Conclusions 1997/2]
How Successful Has the UN been????
UN Third World Conference - Nairobi, Kenya (1985)
Beijing International Women's Conference (1995) - Promoted as a global strategy for achieving gender equality.
Economic and Social Council (1997) - Definition of Gender Mainstreaming.
UNSC RESOLUTION 1325
Gender: Social construct, defines masculinity and femininity. Gender identities shape how people perceive the world, conflict and peace, and the role of men and women.
Men still define the concepts of war and peace
Stereotypes of women largely lead to their marginalisation in peace discussions
Men are disproportionately present in peace operations
UN's goal is 'aiming' for a 50:50 male to female ratio at UNHQ & in Peace Operations
Future of Gender Mainstreaming
1. Addressing Patriarchy
2. Encouraging troop and police contributing nations to increase female peacekeeping numbers
3. More women in senior positions
4. Dealing with bureaucratic culture within the UN System
5. Empower local women
6. Educate and Monitor UN Peacekeepers
Nepalese Female Peacekeepers