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Types of Assessment
Transcript of Types of Assessment
Self-Assessment TYPES OF ASSESSMENT Standardized assessment can be defined as "a test, designed to yield either norm-referenced or criterion-referenced, that is administered, scored, and interpreted in a standard, predetermined manner" (Popham, 2011, p. 308). Standardized Assessment Formative assessment can be defined as: "a planned process in which assessment-elicited evidence of students' status is used by teachers to adjust their ongoing instructional procedures or by students to adjust their current learning tactics" (Popham, 2011, p. 270). Formative Summative assessments can be defined as assessment that occurs "when educators collect test-based evidence to inform decisions about already completed instructional activities" (Popham, 2011, p. 271). Summative Self-assessment is the process by which students evaluate their own work to determine their strengths and weaknesses. Teachers can then use their students' self-assessments to identify these strengths and weaknesses (West Virginia Department of Education, 2013). Self-Assessment References Popham, E. J. (2011). Classroom assessment:
What teachers need to know (6th ed.). Boston: MA: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon. Examples of Formative Assessments When to Use Who Benefits? Examples of Summative Assessment When to Use Who Benefits? West Virginia Department of Education. (2013).
"Examples of Formative Assessment." Retrieved from http://wvde.state.wv.us/teach21/ExamplesofFormativeAssessment.html Running Head: ASSESSMENT GRAPHIC ORGANIZER Assessment Graphic Organizer
April 21, 2013
Paula Lawrason, Ph.D. Examples of Standardized Assessment When to Use Who Benefits? Admit/Exit Slips Questioning Individual Whiteboads Formative assessments should be used: to determine the level of student mastery before summative assessment is given.
For example, a vocabulary quiz given before the vocabulary unit test will allow both teachers and students to see which words still need to be understood before the test.
to determine what, if any, adjustments to instruction need to be made.
For example, a reading check quiz given to determine the level of comprehension for a given literary reading will show whether students are ready to write a formal essay analyzing a particular concept within the text or whether the teacher needs to spend more instructional time going over the meaning of the text before any further assessment. Teachers Examples of Self-Assessment When to Use Who Benefits? Teachers are better informed about their students' abilities and the effectiveness of instruction. For example, an exit slip may show that more time needs to be spent on identifying metaphors within a poem. Students Students receive instruction that is tailored more to their actual levels of mastery and are made more aware of their current comprehension levels so that they may adjust their learning accordingly. For example, after incorrectly answering a math problem using a whiteboard, the student is made aware that they need further instruction and can receive it from the teacher. This form of assessment asks students for a written response to a question posed by the teacher, concerning the concept(s) being currently taught. They may be used at the beginning or the end of the class (West Virginia Department of Education, 2013). This form of assessment involves the teacher posing questions to students that require more than a simple recall of memorized facts. Questions should require students to engage in critical thinking and higher-level thought (West Virginia Department of Education, 2013). Teachers can modify their questioning to accommodate cultural and academic differences among their students as well as using student responses to identify any differences in these areas that may have been previously unknown. Teachers can use student responses to determine whether academic or cultural differences need to be instructionally accommodated in ways that they may not previously have been. This form of assessment involves students completing their work on an individual whiteboard (melamine tile or slate, for example) or a digital tablet (iPad, for example). When they are finished, they can hold it up and the teacher can immediately assess which students understand and which need further help (West Virginia Department of Education, 2013). Teachers can immediately see which students need help with cultural or academic differences and can adjust instruction accordingly. Association for Middle Level Education. "Formative and
Summative Assessments in the Classroom." Retrieved from http://www.amle.org/publications/webexclusive/assessment/tabid/1120/default.aspx End of Unit Test End of Term Exam Standardized State Assessments This type of assessment is used to determine whether or not a student has mastered the concepts and material covered during a particular unit of instruction. This type of assessment is used to determine whether or not a student has mastered the material and multiple concepts taught over the course of a term (marking period or semester). This type of assessment is used to determine whether or not students are mastering state-mandated curricular concepts and benchmarks.
Organizations that compose standardized assessments need to ensure that the test questions have no cultural bias and are appropriate to the academic standards and benchmarks that they are intended to measure mastery of. Summative assessments should be used: at the end of an instructional unit.
For example, after finishing a unit on Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, a unit test can determine the level of student comprehension. at the end of a term or marking period.
For example, at the end of each semester, teachers administer semester exams that cover all the instructional concepts and material taught during the entire term. at regular intervals during the course of a student's academic career.
For example, states may administer standardized assessments to all students in grade ten to determine whether appropriate benchmarks are being met by the time the student makes it to that particular grade level. Teachers Administrators and Districts KWL Chart This form of self-assessment asks students to fill in three columns indicating what they Know about a topic, what they Want to Know, and then, after instruction, what they Learned. Portfolios Reflective Journals Students Teachers These types of assessments are collections of students' work. Students can choose which pieces of work to include in their portfolios and "during portfolio conferences the teacher encourages students to come up with personal appraisals of their own work" (Popham, 2011, p. 213). During this process, students are evaluating their own work and progress. In constructing this type of summative assessment, teachers should ensure that the questions students are being posed contain no cultural bias and that they are appropriate to the academic level of their students. Teachers should ensure that exams are appropriate to the academic level of their students and do not contain questions that are culturally biased. Teachers can use the results of summative assessments to evaluate their students and as a means of determining whether their instructional methods have been effective. For example, after administering a semester exam, a teacher can use the scores to determine their students' semester grades. Administrators can use the results of summative assessments to adjust the curriculum being taught in their schools and evaluate their faculty. For example, in many states, state-mandated assessments are used as one factor in determining teacher compensation. After students have completed the first two columns (Know and Want to Know), teachers can use the responses to adjust their instruction. As a result, they can take into consideration the cultural backgrounds and academic levels of their students. Teachers can use portfolio conferences to determine the academic level of each student as well as any cultural misunderstandings that may exist between the student and the material being taught. This type of assessment involves students keeping in journal in which they reflect on their completion of various assignments and assessments. Students can comment on what they felt they were successful at and what they struggled with. This helps them identify areas in which they may need to adjust their learning strategies. Teachers can collect their students' journals and use the responses to determine if students are struggling academically or if there is any cultural bias in assignments that may impede their success. Self-assessment can be used: after any assignment or assessment. For example, after completing an essay, students can write a paragraph explaining what they felt confident about and what they had difficulties with. as an on-going process during the course of an academic year. For example, students can keep a portfolio of their writing assignments throughout the year. Through portfolio conferences or written explanations, students can justify/explain why they included each piece of writing. Self-assessment helps students to foster a sense of ownership over their own work. Over time, they can see improvements in their work and take pride in their achievements. When students use self-assessment, it helps to create a greater sense of partnership between teachers and students. Sole responsibility for evaluating students' work is no longer placed on the teacher but is undertaken together with the student. Achievement Tests Aptitude Tests Aptitude tests are intended to give an indication of how well a high-school student is likely to perform in college. However, Popham (2011) also points out that only 25% of a student's success at the college level can be associated with the predictions of aptitude tests. Example: Advanced Placement Tests, State-Mandated Testing Example: SAT, ACT Culturally and academically, aptitude tests contain bias as more affluent students can afford expensive test preparation tools and tutoring (Popham, 2011). This gives them an advantage over those students who cannot afford extra test-preparation. Standardized achievements tests are intended to be an indicator of how well a student has mastered specific skills or knowledge (Popham, 2011). Colleges can use tests such as the AP exams to award college-credit to high school students, states and districts can use data gleaned from mandated testing to determine school funding and teacher performance. The same cultural and academic biases present in aptitude tests are present in achievement tests. Students from higher socio-economic backgrounds can afford to avail themselves of test-preparation programs and methods that are unavailable to those from more disadvantaged backgrounds. Standardized tests are used: at the end of the academic year. For example, students in an AP US History course will take the AP exam in May that is designed to measure how well they have mastered the material in the class. when students are preparing to apply to colleges. For example, the SAT and ACT are indicators used by many colleges as an important factor in accepting or denying potential applicants. Test Preparation Companies School Adminstrators and Districts State Legislatures Standardized tests are written by test-preparation companies and therefore, the more tests that are taken, the more the company makes (Popham, 2011). Administrators and districts use the data from standardized testing to determine which schools are failing to meet standards, which are meeting them, and which are exceeding them. Frequently, this information is used to determine levels of funding for schools as well as salaries for teachers. State legislatures can use standardized testing to demonstrate that they are aligned with nationally-set standards in order to continue receiving federal money (Popham, 2011). Admit/Exit Slips
Individual Whiteboards End of Unit Test
End of Term Exam
Standardized State Assessment KWL Chart
REflective Journals Aptitude Tests
(AP Tests, State-mandated Testing)