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Rural and Urban Settlement Patterns

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Ms O

on 18 June 2018

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Transcript of Rural and Urban Settlement Patterns

Basic and Non-Basic Industries
Urban places exist because there are different economic activities that bring money into them
Basic industries: the activities that bring money into the community in order for it to exist; they provide jobs for people living there
Non-Basic industries: do not contribute (provide money) to a city's ECONOMIC BASE
Different Kinds of Urban Places
Manufacturing Cities
Develop as people start to live near factories in order to find jobs producing and distributing manufactured goods
e.g., Sarnia, Ontario is an oil-based manufacturing centre
Transportation Hubs
Established because they provide important transportation functions
e.g., Winnepeg, Manitoba was originally a major hub for railways
Tourist Cities
Develop as a result of a physical or human feature that people are attracted to
e.g., Banff, Alberta has its hot springs, scenery, and wildlife
Government Centres
May provide services to people at a local, regional, and/or national level
e.g., Fredericton, New Brunswick offers religious, cultural, medical, and educational services to the region
Resource-based Communities
Established to develop a resource
e.g., Flin Flon, Manitoba has richest copper-zinc deposits in Canada
When Canada officially became a country in 1867, only 18% lived in towns and cities
Today, 80% of the population lives in towns and cities
Urbanization is characterized by an increase in population density and by a highly concentrated population distribution pattern
Urban growth: actual number of people by which a city's population grows
e.g., Between 1996 and 2001, the urban growth in the city of London, Ontario was over 10,870 people
Urbanization: the percentage of a country's total population living in urban places
Urbanization in Canada has occurred because of new technology and changes happening in rural and urban economies
e.g., new agricultural machinery replaces people working on farms
Unemployed people move to towns and cities to find jobs
Manufacturing and services create jobs in towns and cities as well
Immigration also allows cities to grow
Urbanization in Canada
Rural & Urban
Settlement

Before urbanization, there was the Agricultural Revolution
Farming allowed people to make food surpluses
People became specialists in various fields such as weaving, making metal objects, and milling grain
Since they were providing one another with goods and services, it made sense to live close together
From this came the start of villages
As agricultural productivity improved and as more manufacturing jobs opened up, more people were moving to urban places
Villages turned into towns and towns turned into cities
Goods and services created in towns and cities were/are exchanged for food products produced in the country
The countryside that trades with towns and cities is called a hinterland
The Start of Urbanization
Rural Settlement Patterns
Population distribution: two types of settlement patterns
Dispersed patterns: typical of areas with an agricultural base because people tend to live on farms that are spread out over the region
Concentrated patterns: occur where other natural resources are present; economic opportunities that result from the development of the resource draw people to settle close together near that source
e.g., a gold mine attracts miners and their families to live close to that mine and then other people settle close to the mine to offer goods and services to those mine workers and their families; over time this creates a town
Linear pattern: a type of concentrated pattern (e.g., along highways or ocean coasts)
Over 90% of Canadians live within 600 km of US border
Rural Settlement in Canada
Settlement in Canada can be divided into two major categories: rural and urban
Rural settlement occurs outside of cities and towns and is characterized by low population density and a dispersed population distribution pattern
3 things which affect the rural settlement pattern in any area:
1. The kind of resources found in the area
e.g., southwestern Ontario great for agriculture
2. The transportation methods available at the time of settlement
e.g., before 1800, settlement occurred by water such as rivers and lakes
3. The role played by government policy
e.g., in some areas, government planned how, where, and when settlement would occur (such as long lots in southern Quebec)
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