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Transcript of Mesopotamia
The cities of Ur and Eridu were built near water so they could use water transport to the maximum. The cities locations also increased their chances of suffering floods. These conditions have inspired the Gilgamesh Epic, this is the oldest epic poem. In one account of this epic poem there was a story that was very similar to the Holy Bible’s story of Noah and the great flood. The Mesopotamian's used Bitumen (a natural tar) to water proof things.
One of the first settlements founded around circa 4000 B.C. by the Ubaidian inhabitants of Sumer.
Before 2800 B.C, Ur was one of the most prosperous Sumerian City-States.
Records say there were 3 dynasties. The City of Ur First Dynasty: founder was the conqueror and temple builder Mesanepada.
Ruled in about 2670 B.C.
His son built the temple of the goddess Ninhursag.
His son took reign in about 2650 B.C. Very little is known about the second dynasty
Ur-Nammu was the first king of the 3rd dynasty. (reign: 2113-2095 B.C)
He revived the city of Sumer and Akkad, won control of the outlet of the sea in about 2100 B.C, and made Ur the wealthiest city in all of Mesopotamia.
His reign marked a renaissance of Sumerian art and literature at Ur.
Ur-Nammu's son and successor Shulgi (reigned in 2095-2047) built the ziggurat of Nanna (2100 B.C) and also more temples around Ur and ALL of Mesopotamia.
the descendants of Ur-Nammu continued to take rule of during the dynasty until shortly after 2000 B.C when the elamites captured Ibbi-Sin (reigned 2029-2004) the king of Ur at that time, and they ceased to destroy the whole city. The city of Ur was shortly rebuilt after the destruction later to become a permanent part of the kingdom of Babylonia.
Babylonia was ruled by the Kassites.
While their ruling, Ur was an important religious center. City of Uruk Location- a busy city on the flats of Mesopotamia near the Euphrates River.
The city was ran by King Gilgamesh.
Uruk was larger than any of the other city-states put together with a population of close to 50,000 THE LEGEND OF KING GILGAMESH
King Giglamesh and his friend, Enkidu. went to go find Cedar wood.
Cedar was important because during this time period, cedar wood was long and straight so it made good use for making doors for temples and palaces. The wood also lasted for many years and it always smelled pleasant.
Demon named Humbaba
protected the cedar forest.
Breath like death, roar like a flood, and a mouth like fire. King Gilgamesh;
First King of Uruk
Built the city walls Akkad Akkad Farming and Agriculture
• Farming this was very crucial to the society of the Mesopotamians
• Irrigation systems made to water crops
• The rainfall
• The key crops and animals raised
• Punishment for abuse of farming (cc) image by quoimedia on Flickr (cc) image by rocketboom on Flickr Religions: Sumerians believed the universe consisted of a heaven and an earth. They used the term, "An-Ki" which translates to heaven-earth.
Earth, to them, was flat disk surrounded by a hollow space which was enclosed by a solid surface which they believed was made out of tin.
Between the heaven and the earth was a substance called "lil." Translated to "air" or "breath." They were also luminescent. Surrounding the an-ki was the primeval sea. The sea gave birth to the universe which eventually gave rise to life. It was believed that the earth was controlled by a divine, immortal being.
There was a world below called "The Netherworld" or as we would call it in today's times "The Underworld." The Sumerians believed that the dead descended to here through their graves.
There was also special entrances that you could use to enter the underworld. But in order to enter through these special entrances you had to follow a set of rules.
You must not make a single noise.
You must not carry any weapons.
You must not wear clean clothes
You must not behave in a normal manner towards your family.
You must not wear sandles
And you must not douse yourself with "good" oil.
And in order to leave the Underworld after entering through a special entrance, you must find yourself a substitute to take your place. The Netherworld was ran by Nergal and Ereshkigal.
The Sumerians had a large number of deities, including sky gods. Who later, scholars found to feel out of faith to the Sumerians. Upon the entering of the Netherworld, you had to cross the river with the Old Boatman. Then you were confronted by Utu, who then would judge your soul. If the judgement was positive, the soul would live a life of happiness. Although, the Sumerians believed that the life in the Netherworld was dismal. The Sumerian Gods would live and maintain in a human form. The gods would eat, drink, marry, and would fight each other, just as normal humans would do.
Although the Gods were immortal and all powerful beings, it was a apparent that they could be hunted and even killed. List of SOME of the Gods:
An- Great father of the gods, God of the sun
Enki- God of the waters, wisdom and creation, fertility. Invented writing. Keeper of Divine laws. Created first humans
Enlil- God of wind, rain, and air. Invented tools of agriculture. Created the deluge or "amaru," to destroy mankind.
Ninhursag- goddess of childbirth. Queen of the Mountains. Great Mother Goddess. the Sumerians believed their role on this planet was to serve the gods. They did this by prayer, worship, and sacrifice. There were temples dedicated to their patron god in every city. Sometimes smaller temples dedicated to the other gods. Temples were made for special practices of worship. Daily, there would be a sacrifice in favor of that god. Sacrafices consisted of animals and food, such as wine, beer, meat, and milks.
There were always special occasions for the Gods. Every month on the new moon, the 7th, the 15th, and the full moon, there were special feasts that took place in the temples. New Years was the most important occasion. The City of Eridu what is now called Abu Shahrain, Iraq was once known as the City of Eridu. The earliest city in Mesopotamia. Founded in 5400 B.C. Located 12 km from Ur, Eridu was the southern most of the Mesopotamian cities. Eridu was full of temples, almost in view of one another. According to Sumerian mythology, the city was founded by the Deity Enki. • Transportation by water
• Biblical relations
• Tigris River and Euphrates River Tigris and Euphrates Rivers Social Classes: The Priests-
the Priests were the most powerful. They were in charge of making sure everyone behaved in order to make the Gods happy. They were also the doctors of that time. If you got sick, it was the priest that was called to your bedside. Upper Class-
the men and women would wear jewelery, mostly rings. Men wore skirts, had long hair, mustaches, and long beards. Women wore dresses off of one shoulder, long hair (normally in some sort of fancy braid), they were easily distinguished among the priests. Priests often shaved their head. Both this class and the priest wore cloaks made of sheep wool to keep warm during the winter. Lower Class-
they were paid for their work. If they ran a shop or worked in the fields, they were paid for their goods or labor.
Stealing was a very serious offense that everyone paid for, even the king.
Although the lower class didn't have a luxury lifestyle that the rich had, they had a comfortable lifestyle.
they were hard-workers and had homes. They wore jewelry but not made of gold. They tried to follow fashions of the time as much as possible.
It was possible for them to move up the social class scale, or more than likely, the children move up the social scale by becoming a scribe, priest or priestess. Slaves-
when the Sumerians conquered a different town, they brought back prisoners back with them to become slaves.
Slaves would work for the king, the temple, and the wealthy who could afford them.
Slaves would be bought and sold. Records have actually been found of how much someone would pay for a slave.
Generally, a slave bought at an auction would cost less than a donkey, but more than a cow. By: Allyssa Coillot, Emily Jones, Mason York, & Chad Roark The Arts The Parts of Mesopotamia: Sumer (3500-2300 B.C)
Akkad (2300-2150 B.C)
Assyria (1400-600 B.C)
Tigris & the Euphrates River Sumerian-
temples on top of ziggurats
elaborately decorated palaces
marble sculptures that normally had clasped hands and large eyes. Such as those found in the Abu temple.
Since they had a belief in the after life, tombs were highly decorated with art, furniture, and other items that will prepare them for the next "world." Assyrian-
Their art was mostly narrative relief sculptures.
Unlike other Mesopotamian art, Assyrians had a large quantity of stones.
The carvings in the stones were used to decorate palaces.
Some had dramatic relief such as "The Dying Lion" (to the left) Akkadian-
Took part in Sumerian-Like art.
made art in stone, bronze, and relief. Babylonian-
Flourished under King Nabuchadnezzar II, who built the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, a series of terraced gardens.
Babylonians practiced all aspects of Mesopotamian arts, and made excellent colored glazed tiles, which was used to created relief sculptures. Sumerian Inventions:
The first WRITTEN language
kilns to cook bricks and pottery
bronze hand tools like hammers and axes.
the plow seeder
and the first "superhero," Gilgamesh. Assyria: wanted to rule the known world.
created an army that attacked and terrorized many nations.
remembered for it's brilliant architecture.
the greatest talent of the Assyrians was their art of warfare.
had three originated cities. Nineveh, Arbela, and Ashur.
The name came from the Sun God, Ashur. he was a very merciful god, he took pleasure in war and killing prisoners. Middle Assyria: the first major empire of Assyria.
Ashur-Uballit created this empire.
Tukulti-Ninurta was the next great ruler. he conquered many lands and had the people move to other lands so they wouldn't try to revolt against him. in the end, his son led a revolt against him and seized the throne.
the next king was Tiglath-Pileser. He had a war against Phrygians, Aramaeans, and Babylonians. They made many advancements such as the chariot and iron smelting. as well as advancements in religion and literature largely from the Babylonians. King Ashurbanipal-
the last great Assyrian ruler.
Scholar king and patron of learning the arts and literature.
During his reign, Assyria was the largest state ever known.
The Assyrian monarchy’s strength was established by the tradition of Orient. This prevents the people from thinking of another form of government. Assyrian Art: many statue depictions of battle scenes during war.
very vivid scenes in limestone relief which were extremely beautiful but also terrifying images of power and wealth of the kings of Assyria. Then Now City of Ninevah:
Capital of Assyrian empire at its peak.
Situated where the Tigris River and Khosr Rivers merge.
Important center for commercial trade.
Mostly known as a major religious center. the Assyrians were controlled by the Babylonians for a long period of time. in that time, they picked up heavily on the Babylonian culture.
Both kingdoms were Semitic and the language was mostly identical.
The Assyrians mostly worshipped Babylonian God's but gave the God, Ashur, the most prominent devotion. because the Assyrians were constantly attacked, they developed into fierce warriors and were not afraid to strike any sort of fear into the hearts of their enemies by boasting about their achievements in battle. From the Hittites of Anatolia, they acquired iron and were able to make very strong weapons. They also got horses from the Hittites but instead of using them to pull chariots, they formed "Calvary Units." Code of Hammurabi:
The first set of laws EVER.
there are 282 laws Some of the actual laws from the Code of Hammurabi 14. If anyone steal the minor son of another, he shall be put to death 141. If a man's wife, who lives in his house, wishes to leave it, plunges into debt, tries to ruin her house, neglects her husband, and is judicially convicted: if her husband offer her release, she may go on her way, and he gives her nothing as a gift of release. If her husband does not wish to release her, and if he take another wife, she shall remain as servant in her husband's house. 142. If a woman quarrel with her husband, and say: "You are not congenial to me," the reasons for her prejudice must be presented. If she is guiltless, and there is no fault on her part, but he leaves and neglects her, then no guilt attaches to this woman, she shall take her dowry and go back to her father's house. 143. If she have not been a careful mistress, have gadded about, have neglected her house and have belittled her husband, that woman shall be thrown into the water. 144. If a man take a wife and this woman give her husband a maid-servant, and she bear him children, but this man wishes to take another wife, this shall not be permitted to him; he shall not take a second wife. 145. If a man take a wife, and she bear him no children, and he intend to take another wife: if he take this second wife, and bring her into the house, this second wife shall not be allowed equality with his wife. 146. If a man take a wife and she give this man a maid-servant as wife and she bear him children, and then this maid assume equality with the wife: because she has borne him children her master shall not sell her for money, but he may keep her as a slave, reckoning her among the maid-servants. 147. If she have not borne him children, then her mistress may sell her for money 194. If a man give his child to a nurse and the child die in her hands, but the nurse unbeknown to the father and mother nurse another child, then they shall convict her of having nursed another child without the knowledge of the father and mother and her breasts shall be cut off. 195. If a son strike his father, his hands shall be hewn (cut) off. 226. If a barber (brander), without the knowledge of his master, cut the sign of a slave on a slave not to be sold, the hands of this barber shall be cut off. 282. If a slave say to his master: "You are not my master," if they convict him his master shall cut off his ear. there was no 13th law in the code of Hammurabi.
the number 13 was considered extremely unlucky. 110. If a "sister of a god" (nun) open a tavern, or enter a tavern to drink, then shall this woman be burned to death. THE END!!!! (: Works Cited: "Sumeria, The City of Ur." History world.org.
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Code." Phillip Martin's You Be the Judge of Hammurabi's Code. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Sept. 2012.
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"Ashurbanipal, King of Assyria (c. 700 B.C-626
B.C.)." DISCovering World History. Online ed. Detroit: Gale 2003. Discovering Collection. Gale.
"The Ancient Middle East, 1600 B.C- 331 B.C."
DISCovering World History. Online ed. Detroit: Gale, 2003. Discovering collection. Gale. McDonald Co R 1. 18 Sept. 2012. Fun Facts about the Code of Hammurabi.
It can be argued that the code contains the first set of human rights. For there are laws in this code that protect the poor and the weak.
It also contains the first recorded kind of insurance. It sets out these details of a system where merchants can agree to pay lenders a fee in exchange for a legally binding promise that if what is shipped is lost, they do not have to repay the loan.
The code mentions nothing of religion.
Was licked by Ms. Hanks. (;