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Investigating Early Elementary Teachers' Implementation of M
Transcript of Investigating Early Elementary Teachers' Implementation of M
* Researchers have stated that by the year 2020 students of color will consist of fifty percent of the school population, while teachers will likely remain predominantly White and female (Amos, 2010; Gollnick & Chin, 2009; Paine, 1989).
* Researchers have also projected that White students will become the minority in American schools (Frey, 2011).
Investigating Early Elementary Teachers' Implementation of Multicultural Education Using Teacher Evaluations
Why Early Elementary?
*Early elementary grades are foundational to the growth and development of students
*Young children are able to display gender and racial preferences and prejudices in the early years (Souto-Manning, 2013).
Why use teacher evaluations?
* Increased accountability measures for teachers (i.e. Danielson Model)
The ability to accurately evaluate, reflect, and implement new ideas or concepts into the classroom setting is foundational when working towards higher teacher quality and high-quality learning environments.
By Anni Krummel Reinking
* Research in progress
The purpose of the proposed study is to investigate and explore teachers' mindsets and experiences of multicultural curriculum implementation in their early elementary classroom in Central Illinois through a teacher evaluation model, including observation, feedback, and self-reflection.
1. How do teachers describe diversity in their classrooms and school environment?
2. How does a comprehensive teacher evaluation approach generate teachers’ sense of agency (or control) when implementing integrated multicultural curriculum?
3. What does it mean to teachers to implement integrated multicultural curriculum in early elementary settings (look like, feel like, sound like)?
4. How does an incorporation of multicultural materials into a classroom environment influence the teachers’ view and implementation of multicultural curriculum?
Teachers' Understanding of Diversity (Lynne Paine, 1989)
1st Category: Individual Differences
- students are different in "many ways and dimensions" (biological and psychological)
2nd Category: Categorical Differences
- differences based on specific stereotypes
3rd Category: Contextual Differences
- assign a social construct to a category
4th Category: Pedagogical Perspective
- differences are not simple and random
- consequences for teaching and learning
Multicultural Curriculum Implementation
(Banks, 1993; McIntosh, 2000)
1: Curriculum of the Mainstream (Banks, 1993; McIntosh, 2000)
Information is presented in an Eurocentric manner.
2: Contributions Approach or the Heroes and Holidays Stage
eachers incorporate books and activities to celebrate differences.
3: Additive Approach or Integration Stage
Content, concepts, themes, and perspectives are added to the curriculum without changing the basic structure (Banks).
: Transformation Approach or the Structural Reform Stage
Structure of the curriculum changes to encourage students to view concepts, issues, themes, and problems form several ethnic perspectives.
5: Social Action Approach or the Multicultural, Social Action, and Awareness Stage
Adds to the changes made in stage four along with encouraging students to question and act on social issues (Banks, 1999; McIntosh).
WHAT IS MISSING?
to implement multicultural curriculum in early elementary settings.
teacher evaluation practices for early elementary teachers
Six Commonly Shared Ideas: (Gorski, 2010)
1. Every student in an education setting must have an equal opportunity to reach his or her maximum potential
2. School buildings must prepare students to participate in the ever-changing multicultural society
3. Students have the responsibility to learn how to interact and embrace changing demographics– teacher effectively preparing and facilitating learning
4. Students must be active in ending the oppression
5. Education must be student-centered and inclusive for all
6. Educators and advocates for educational equity need to reexamine how educational practices affect student learning
are viewed as a way to support student growth by reinforcing high expectations and creating a
common language for best practice
(The New Teacher Project, 2014). Researchers have studied numerous evaluation approaches, including
observation, feedback and self-reflection strategies, each of which has their own strengths and weaknesses
(Bilbrey, Vorhaus, Farran, & Shufelt, 2010; Casey & McWilliam, 2011; Farran & Son-Yarbrough, 2001; Klein & Knitzer, 2006; Pianta, 2012).
The research will include a group of individuals (5 participants) who have a
or interaction (i.e. implementing multicultural curriculum in a public school setting).
Data Analysis Process
* Two theories will be used to evaluate the data
* Data analysis will occur throughout the process of the study to create a focus and guide further data collection (Creswell, 2012; Glaser & Strauss, 1967; Lincoln & Guba, 1985).
*Open coding will be used to compare data points, instances, and participants’ responses (Strauss & Corbin, 2008).
Previous Research Link
* Qualitative research has the potential for researcher bias (Creswell & Miller, 2010; Merriam, 1998).
* The researcher will be engaging in the process of self-reflection, which is essential because “unacknowledged bias may entirely invalidate the results” (Kvale, 1996, p. 286).
....valuing strengths of individuals that are worthy of recognition and incorporation into the classroom through integration into every aspect of the environment; course of study/lesson in a classroom environment (Amos, 2010; Banks, 1995; Banks & Banks, 1995; Gollnick & Chin, 2009; Gorski, 2010; Swidler, 1986).
For example: …
culture/race, class, and gender, along with disability, sexual orientation, and language (Sleeter & Grant, 1994). In more recent years, researchers have also added religion
(Pohen & Aguilar, 2001).
Family and Holidays
Anni Krummel Reinking
University of Iowa: BA in Psychology
Dominican University: MS.Ed in Early Elementary
Illinois State University: ABD (Ed.D.) Curriculum and Instruction
Private, Charter, Public school
(Pre-K-6th grade) -- Mombasa, Kenya; Southside of Chicago; Northwest Indiana; Central Illinois
Areas of Research Interest
Multicultural Curriculum/Education in Elementary Schools
Classroom/School Management: PBIS and Responsive Classroom
Teacher Evaluation Practices
Service Learning for Pre-service Teachers
Thank you for your time!
...teacher evaluation models to help teachers develop and grow as professionals (Lazzari & Bruder, 1988).
Teachers are perceived as agents or catalysts for change in classroom environments (Lattimer, 2012). Therefore, in order to understand teachers’ performance or teaching styles in classrooms, instruments and strategies to evaluate teachers have been developed and expanded upon (Agbenyega, 2012).
Dr. Eberhardt (Anthropology and Sociology): One's culture and "childhood" affect our idea of "who" and "what"
Real Time Teacher Coaching
While student populations are becoming more diverse– teacher demographics are remaining stagnant (White, Female, Christian, Middle Class) (DeVillar & Jiang, 2012)
There is a need in schools buildings and classrooms for multicultural education or the ability to provide educational experiences for students to reach their full potential as a learner and as a socially active citizen, especially in the early grades (Banks, 1996; Nieto, 1999).
Initially the researcher made assumptions regarding the participants,
however those have been challenged. The researcher engaged in the exact behavior that multicultural education advocates are encouraging teachers not to do with their students.
4/5 participants are white, middle class, female, Christians
“In-group” idea regarding the level of comfort speaking with me, as the researcher. (Researchers have found evidence of “in-group favoritism” and “out-group prejudice.” Aboud, 2003)
Participants have been very open to asking questions throughout the research—utilizing the researcher more as a consultant in the classroom, rather than an observer.
Multicultural Education “topics” observed:
Sexual Orientation: 0
(One classroom as an ELL student)
Participants Engaging in Multicultural Education Conversations/Lessons during observations (percentage of observation time in classroom)
...valuing strengths of individuals that are worthy of recognition and incorporation into the classroom (Amos, 2010; Banks, 1995; Gollnick & Chin, 2009; Gorski, 2010)
culture/race, class, and gender, along with disability, sexual orientation, and language (Sleeter & Grant, 1994). In more recent years, researchers have also added religion (Pohen & Aguilar, 2001). Family and Holidays
Homogenous, Purposeful Sampling:
selected in a fixed way in order to achieve a specific goal (Creswell, 2012).
Participants = 5
- Certified in the State of Illinois
- Teach in Peoria County, outside of Peoria District 150
: 86% Low-Income; 51% African American; 6.5% More than one; 41% White
56.9% Low-Income; 5.7% African American; 4.7% More than one; 85% White
White, Christian or non-religious, Middle Class, Female
Ages between 24 and 58
Years of teaching between 2 and 25+
Next Steps... Continuing the Research
Funds of Knowledge
historically accumulated and culturally developed bodies of knowledge and skills
essential for a household or individual functioning and well-being” (Moll, Amanti, Neff, & Gonzalez, 2001, p. 133).
Final One-on-One Interview
Participant and Researcher Self-Reflections
Code Data: Make Connections