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Unit 7: Fitness Testing for sport and Exercise
Transcript of Unit 7: Fitness Testing for sport and Exercise
Being used by many sports coaches is an advantage as it is a way of comparing you to other team mates’ speed. A coach can easily look at a chart and see whether or not you are in the higher percentage or lower percentage of the teams fastest. Or He could compare to the general norm.
It is easy to setup as all you need is a 35m straight ground and a stopwatch to perform the test. This is an advantage as you can go to almost anywhere with a straight line for 35m. And most modern phones have a stopwatch integrated into the phone.
Unit 7: Fitness Testing for sport and Exercise
P1 Describe one test for each component of physical fitness, including advantages and disadvantages.
M1 Explain the advantages and disadvantages of one fitness test for each component of physical fitness.
This component of fitness is what allows an individual the range of motion in a joint or group of joints.
An individual with greater flexibility will have a larger range of motion in their joints.
How to test flexibility.
Flexibility can be tested by using the sit and reach test.
The standard sit and reach test can be set up with 2 pieces of equipment. A box and a tape measure. The box is placed by the participants feet with the sole of the foot flat against the box. With Legs stretched out straight the participant reaches as far forward as they can with palms facing downwards on top of each other. They must hold this position for 3 seconds. The distance is recorded by the distance the tips of the fingers reach forward.
An example of an individual with good flexibility.
P1: Advantages and disadvantages of the Sit and Reach test.
Quick and Easy to set up
Doesn't specifically need a sit and reach box it can be done with any box, even stairs can be used.
Seen as a general test for flexibility.
Can be done at home.
A lot of data usable for comparison.
Being Quick and easy to setup is an advantage as it allows many people to be tested in a short time, this is good as an entire class can be tested within 5 minutes.
Being cheap is an advantage as any body can perform the test. At home the test could be done using a step or a gym may have a proper sit and reach box.
Being seen as a general test for flexibility is an advantage as you can use this as evidence of flexibility which a coach, or army commander or gym instructor will be able to understand. They can compare this too the general norm and be able to tell you if you have good flexibility and where you compare to others.
“Speed is the ability to move quickly across the ground or move limbs rapidly to grab or throw.”- Top end sports.
An image of Usain Bolt the fastest man on earth.
How to test Speed
This test is performed by sprinting 35m in a straight line. You need a stopwatch and a tape measure to measure out 35m. Or a running track which has 35m lines marked out.
This short clip shows how to set up a simple 35m sprint test.
P1 Advantages and disadvantages of the 35m sprint test
M1 advantages and disadvantages of the 35m Sprint Test
Normative Data for 35m sprint test.
How to test cardiovascular endurance
P1 Advantages and Disadvantages of doing the Cooper run
M1 Advantages and Disadvantages of the Cooper run
How to test Muscular Endurance
A drawing of the sit and reach test.
Results can be unfair as people have longer/shorter arms and/or legs than others.
Only tests Lower back and hamstring flexibility.
If you don't warm up and stretch, results will be less accurate to full flexibility.
Results by people with shorter arm to leg ratio doesn't show a fair example of flexibility because they possibly can’t reach as far past their feet as others. however It can be corrected by using the modified sit and reach test which accounts for the length of arm and legs. This can be tedious as it takes longer to setup and finish.
If you don't warm up your muscles before the test your muscles can’t stretch as far. Therefore your results will be less making your score lower. This is a disadvantage as it takes time to warm up and scores may not be fair between different people. To Keep the test reliable everyone performing the test need to go through the same procedures. .
M1: Advantages and Disadvantages of the Sit and Reach Test
35 Meter Sprint Test
Owner of this video: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCfidfuURifZY75dRITw_fwA
Easy to setup
Used by many as a general test for speed
A lot of results to be compared against.
Can be done nearly anywhere
Different surfaces effect results.
Can be expensive for accurate results.
If outside can be affected by wind.
Type of shoe effects results.
Only test one at a time
Different surfaces alter times accomplished. For example running on grass will remove the spring a running track can give you. Without the extra spring times will be slower. Alternatively shoes also effect times. Using normal trainers on a running track will give less grip compared to running spikes. With less grip you can’t get that extra push from your kick that running spikes give you.
Only being able to test one person at a time can take a lot of time. This is a disadvantage as a class of twenty people may get cold or bored waiting for their turn.
For an accurate result it can be expensive. Paying for timing gates and scientific equipment is a disadvantage because a small gym or club can’t get as accurate scores as larger clubs.
Weather also plays a large part in changing reliability of results; If there is a heavy tailwind then times can be very different to perform the sprint. Ideal wind conditions would be to have no wind as then results cant be affected, or a side wind so it does not impede or assist the forward running motion.
Using speedgates will make results more accurate
Coaches can compare data from their athletes againts Data like this. Which allows the coach to see wether or not more speed training is needed.
"The ability of the heart to provide oxygen to muscles during physical activity for a prolonged period of time. " General fitness
The Best marathon runners have great cardiovascular endurance
You need a running track/field or a marked circuit with accurate distances. A stopwatch and a helper timing.
Run around the track for 12 minutes straight. Going as far and as fast as you can. Record the distance that you make. The distance is relevant to your cardiovascular endurance and VO2 max level.
Cooper run (12 minute run)
lots of comparable data.
Can be done nearly anywhere
Lots of people can perform the test at the same time
Can calculate VO2 max level.
can deeply depend on athlete motivation
can be hard to mark out exactly how far someone got
can be expensive if you want accurate as possible results.
max effort needs to be put in
Normative data for Cooper run.
This normative data is useful for everyone as it shows both athletes norm and non-athletes.
With lots of comparable data one can see how well they do compared to the norm. This is advantageous for a a coach or school teacher as they can inform the participant if he is fit or not from there distance they acquire. With the distance they can also estimate your VO2max level. Using the distance known, a coach may decide to have an estimated calculation of your VO2max level. This is beneficial for a coach as they can actually measure your fitness levels from this. To calculate VO2max levels you use this equation.
"(acquired Distance(m) - 504.9) / 44.73) -brainmac
Being cheap the test can be done in most areas, this is advantageous for school teachers as rather than having to take students to a track they could use fields. Also as it can be done nearly anywhere many people can participate at one time. For a coach or a teacher this is great as they can take a large group and be finished after 1 test. This means time taken is minimized. The Cooper run is better than other tests like the Astrand treadmill test, as that can only operate one person at a time.
One of the biggest factors to getting accurate VO2 max results depends on the participants motivation to put as much effort in as possible. With a lack of motivation the participants results will be less accurate. This can make the reliability of the test less as they wont try as hard, consequently they will get less distance to what they can actually get and therefore VO2 max levels will be lower than they should.
For a school or a small club that doesn't have a running track available it could be hard to mark out exactly the distances the participants are running. This effects reliability as scores could be higher or lower depending on how accurate the markings of distances are. To have accurate distances can take a long time and be too much effort for a teacher or coach to do for just for one session.
"Muscular endurance is the ability of a muscle or group of muscles,to work continuously/for a long period of time without tiring. "- BBC Bitesize.
The pain in this mans face is due to his determination to fight through the lactic acid in his arms. The lactic acid is from the muscular endurance test he is performing.
1 Minute Press up test.
To do this test you need a stopwatch and a partner. You start the stop watch and begin doing press ups. Press ups can only be counted if the arm bends parallel to the floor and fully extends back. Count the amount of press ups you are doing. Once a minute is up record your results.
This image shows the 2 points arms need to reach to make for a valid press up.
P1 Advantages and Disadvantages of the Press ups test
Lots of comparable data
Doing the test will increase muscular endurance.
Quick to perform
Can be done at home
Large groups of people can perform at the same time
Without adequate warm up you can pull muscles easily
Human error may effect results
Normative data for 1 minute Press up test
M1 Advantages and Disadvantages of the Press ups test
With large groups of people its easy to pair people up to test each other fairly to prevent cheating and to make sure each press up is valid. This is an advantage as it keeps reliability of the test high.
The test is as close to being free than any other test. The only think you need is a stopwatch. This is an advantage as anyone anywhere can perform this test. At home or a gym.
Being quick to perform is an advantage, it only takes a minute and you are done. With this you can perform other tests in a short time! this is advantageous if you are testing a class and are pressed for time or if you are at a gym and having your fitness tested
Human error may effect results. Some people may find it a struggle to keep count of exactly how many correct press ups have been done. This diminishes reliability of the test. To stop this lasers could be used to show when a person has reached a full extension of the arm. This can also clock the amount of press ups correctly accomplished. However this would be extremely expensive and only a sports science laboratory or high end clubs would offer this type of testing.
Press ups can be a tough workout for a lot of people and a minute may put people off from working at there highest potential. One must have a lot of motivation before doing this test as without it they will get less press ups completed and their results will be less than what they could get. Lessening test validity
“Strength is the maximum force that can be developed in a muscle or group of muscles during a single maximal contraction “-http://sportsmedicine.about.com/od/glossary/g/Strength_Def.htm
How to test Strength
This test needs participants to complete a consent form before performing the test. An example of an consent form can be found below.
The participant chooses a weight and area of testing, for example upper body strength with a dead lift or free weights. Then after a rest the participant, increase the weight and try’s again. The participant ups the weights until they can’t perform anymore. This way the previous weight they lifted is their maximum strength.
1 repetition maximum tests
P1 Advantages and Disadvantages of the 1-RM max test
Equipment is accessible in most gyms.
Can be calculated in a safer way for amateurs but adds large variation to test.
Need to fill in a consent form.
Need spotters for dead lift
Can be dangerous
should only be performed by people who understand fully what they are doing. Like a professional weightlifter.
M1 Advantages and Disadvantages of the 1-RM max test
The test can be varied to a safer test for amateurs however results may be less accurate. It is dangerous for someone who isn't entirely sure what they have to do so a variation can help. Do as many repetitions as possible on one weight. You must Perform more than 1 repetition. Using this calculation you can find maximum isotonic strength. Weight x (1+(reps/30) = maximum isotonic strength. The variation is beneficial as you do not have to have the correct technique yet you are still pushing yourself hard.
With equipment in most gyms its not hard to test your own maximum isotonic in a safe controlled environment. In a gym Spotters are easily available to have this is advantageous as they are more likely to know what they are doing rather than being at home with mates.
To perform the original 1rm max test you need to have the correct lifting technique. Without it you could end up injuring yourself. This is a disadvantage as if you can not do the technique you cannot do the original test. Therefore maximum isotonic strength will be less accurate.
With a large class of people being tested it will take a long time to do each and every test. This is a disadvantage as with a large group of people an entire hour could be wasted and not everyone have been tested. because of this it can be impractical for a school teacher to get a class to do this test in one lesson.
Another impractical disadvantage for schools and people who don't live near a gym is that some equipment is very expensive and they may not afford the correct equipment.
"The ability to exert a maximal force in as short a time as possible, as in accelerating, jumping and throwing implements."-Top end sports.
Strength and power are very alike. Strength is the maximum force you can use. Power is the speed you use this maximum force. The faster you can move a weight the more power you have.
How to test Power
The Vertical Jump Test
To perform the vertical jump test you need; a wall, some chalk and a tape measure.
1. First cover the fingertips with chalk. This way when you tap the wall it is the furthest score possible.
2. Stand side on to the wall and reach with up with you arm as high as possible. Mark with the highest point with the chalk on your fingertips. This is the standing reach.
3. Now jump as high as possible attempting to tap the wall at the highest point of the jump. This is the jump height
4. Record the distance between the standing reach mark and the jump height mark. This is your score. Repeat step 3 two more times and record each score you get. Use the highest score to check against normative data.
This image shows the ideal movement for the jump.
P1 Advantages and Disadvantages of the Vertical Jump test.
Easy to setup
Can be done alone
Can be done anywhere
Anyone can do it
Popular test for power, many coaches will use this to test power.
Certain ground can affect results
Indoors needs high ceiling
Harder for heavier built people
Complicated calculations for max power.
M1 Advantages and Disadvantages of the Vertical Jump Test
Being a popular test for power, lots of coaches and gym instructors can relate to scores and understand what your score means.
Because the test is so easily available to do there are lots of norms for a wide range of people varying ages and gender
Some people will have a better technique at jumping, this is a disadvantage as they will get a better jump. Also their timing to touch the wall may be better, getting them higher heights than people who's timing is worst.
Being heavier means more energy will have to be put in, to reach a higher height. This will make the score look bad to normative data. However they could be putting in the same amount of power.
"Body composition refers to the proportion of fat and fat-free mass in the body"-About Health
Skin fold calipers are a good way to test body compsition
How to test body composition
Bioelectrical Impedence Test
Equipment: Bioelectrical impedance analyzer.
Make sure you're not touching any other conducting surface. Keep legs apart and arms away from body.
Depending on the device you're using you'll need to place the electrodes on your hand and wrist, and opposite side of your bodies ankle and foot. However some devices you may have to just stand on two footplates. Follow the instructions on your device.
P1 Advantages and disadvantages of doing the Bioelectrical Impedance test
Quick to setup
Can be accurate
Can be used by nearly anyone
Can be expensive
Needs certain conditions for reliability
Doesn't show where the fat is
Scales with bioelectrical impedance analyzer
M1 Advantages and Disadvantages of the Bioelectrical Impedance test.
It is quick, only one person can be tested at a time but it takes only a few seconds, therefor a large class can be tested in minutes. It can also be done at home.
In the right conditions it provides an accurate result of how much body fat a person has. Which is advantageous for someone who wants to see the percentage of body fat and compare to the norm.
It is only a small electrical current so is perfectly safe for almost anyone.
For top range analyzers it can cost over a few thousand pounds. This is a disadvantage as for people who have a tight budget wont be able to afford all the equipment. However some cost just over a hundred pounds. This is better yet it is still expensive.
Tests like the skin fold caliper can indicate larger areas of surface fat, this way you could train on certain areas to lose fat. The Bioelectrical Impedance test doesn't indicate where the fat is. But is more accurate at showing the body fat percentage.