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Post Classical Project Group #4

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Sui Shan Cheng

on 5 December 2013

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Transcript of Post Classical Project Group #4

During the Post Classical Era, societies in the Middle East, Asia, Eastern and Western Europe, India, the Americas, and Africa were affected in their social structures and views on gender roles mainly by the spread of Christianity, Buddhism, Islam, and Hinduism. However, the Americas underwent little change due to isolation, and the oppression of women continued in many societies.
Thesis
Are We Late!
India
Polygany was practiced
Practiced purdah
Sati -widow throws herself on her dead husband's body
Men dominated over women
Child marriages were common
Ban on remarriage by widows
Primary role was to produce children
Bride's father provided a costly dowry

Africa- Gender Roles
Middle East- Gender Roles
Women didn't veil.
Muhammad strengthened women's legal rights.
Women only had one husband
Men usually had four wives.
Middle East Society
Was egalitarian.
Women- right to inherit property.
Male were dominant.
Women had to cover up virtually.
Women were subordinate to men.
Polygyny was common.
Women were friends with men.
Women specialized in commercial activity.
Women were accepted as concubines or slaves.
Shocking clothing.
African Society
Lineage group was important.
Had well-developed system of beliefs.
Many societies were Matrilinear.
Slavery/taken as concubines.
Social Structures
Gender Roles
It goes on!!!
Honey!
Yes!
Yes!
Yes!
Yes!
Besties!!!
Indian Social structure
Main religions were: Hinduism, Buddhism, and Islam
Merchants lived a good life
Rulers possessed the most wealth
Caste System
The Americas
Western & Eastern Europe
noble males sent to temple school
Were trained for war
Could enter the priesthood
Hunting, gathering
Men!!
Women
household work
Could own and inherit property
Parents chose husband
Noble women sometimes married commoners to attain their respect
"My precious son...thou home is not here thou belongest out there...thou hast been sent into warfare...My beloved
maiden...thou wilt be in the heart of the home...thou art to provide water, grind maize, thou art to sweat by the ashes by the hearth."-
Bernardino de Sahagun
Asia
King or high priest
Councils
Nobles
Workers
Slaves & farmers
Hereditary nobility
Commoners
Gender Structures
Mayan & Aztec
Social System
What's Up
How did systems of social structure and gender structure change or stay the same during the post classical period? Why was it doing either and what effect did it have on the world's societies?
Group #4
Sui Shan Cheng
Fizzah Khan
Soovya Nagin
Xiaoqing Mo
Boy,
Boy,
Southeastern Asia
Eastern Asia
Eastern Asia
Southeastern Asia
Asia
vs.
The Americas
Indian influence
Japan
China & Korea
A
r
e
W
e
L
a
t
e!

Emperor
Officials
Scholar-gentry
Peasants/farmers
Merchants
Chonmin
- “base people”
Lords/aristocrats
Samurai
Commoners
Well-to-do peasants
Mass of peasants
Genin -Landless laborers
Eta -slaves
Chinese influence
Men dominated over women
Neo-Confucianism
Eldest male ruled
Concubines and polyngy
Dowry
Influential force within home
Raising children
Had more freedom during Yuan
Chinese & Korean Women
Men
Inheritance rights
Divorce and remarry
Permitted to take monastic life
Buddhism degraded status
Aristocratic women had political influence
Upper class women were expected to be experts at many things.
Japanese Women
King
Hereditary aristocrats
Peasant
Farmers, fishers, artisans
Social Structures
Worked in the fields with men
Higher literacy rate among women
More financial independence
Were bodyguards
Dominated local markets
A daughter was not a burden to parents
Women
Women
Social Structure
Early Middle Ages
Social Structure
High Middle Ages
Male dominant
Followed husband's social status
Nun, wife, businesswoman
Early Middle Ages
Provided food & clothing
Cared for children
Farming chores
Domestic chores

Vietnamese Women
High Middle Ages
Trade and finances
More freedom
More independence
Nuns
Had more rights
Own property
Divorce
Lived with less restrictions
Heroic women to protect homeland
The Trung Sisters
European Women
Christine de Pisan,
a nun in the middle ages
Noblewomen gathered
at a party
Early Middle Ages
5th - 10th century
High Middle Ages
11th - 13th century
A Medieval Woman Cooking
Vietnam
Influenced by Chinese Confucian beliefs
Peasants – small landholders from wealthier farmers
scholar- gentry class
Vast majority were peasants
Social Structures
"Burdened with children and landlords' rent;
What they can put aside from what they make spinning they spend on housing,
Also on milk and meal to make porridge with
To sate their children who cry out for food
And they themselves also suffer much hunger,
And woe in wintertime, and waking up nights
To rise on the bedside to rock the cradle,
Also to card and comb wool, to patch and to wash,
To rub flax and reel yarn and to peel rushes
That it is pity to describe or show in rhyme
The woe of these women who live in huts;"
Daily Life of a Peasant Woman
William Langland's Piers Plowman, translated by George Economou

Christianity
Spread of Religion
Christianity
Power of church from illiteracy of the mass
Increase in trade -> merchant and artisan class
Islam
Middle East - Continuity
Africa - Change
Hinduism
India - Continuity
Southeastern Asia - Change
Christianity
Europe - Change
Buddhism
Eastern Asia - Continuity
The Americas - Contiunity
Women
Oppression of women continued
Spiritual equality for both genders
In reality, harmed women's social status
Women's mobility in society depended on status and education
EASTERN EUROPE
Byzantine Empire
Constantinople's control on trade
Peasants supplied food and tax revenues
Slavery
Merchant class no power
Women inferior to men
A Roman Catholic Church
Reasons for continuity
Geographical location/isolation
Less contact with the world
Least developed
China
The Moral Nature - Empress Xu (Ming Dynasty)
"Being upright and modest, reserved and quiet, correct and dignified, sincere and honest: these constitute the moral nature of a woman. Being filial and respectful, humane and perspicacious, loving and warm, meek and gently: these represent the complete development of the moral nature. The moral nature being innate in our endowment, it becomes transformed and fulfilled through practice. It is not something that comes from the outside but is actually rotted in our very selves."
Neo-Confucianism beliefs
Map of the Byzantime Empire, decreasing in size from 1020 to 1360
A Medieval Woman Cloth Merchant
"Her sin is grievous, and so she is not allowed to enter the lofty palace of the great Brahma, nor to look upon the clouds which hover over his ministers and people."
-Buddhist commentary
"A woman could not attain enlightment"
A Medieval Woman Cooking
Southeastern Asian huts on river
Foot Binding
The Trung Sisters
Both men and women working together in fields
Sati
A typical wedding ceremony in India
literacy
serfdom
Religion - Christianity, Buddhism, Islam
During the post classical era, societies changed...
Change
Continuity
Africa
Southeastern Asia
Europe
Middle East
India
East Asia
The Americas
Women's oppression continued...
They remain problems today for women's rights
Isolation - geographically and philosophically
more freedom
Conclusion
civil service exams provided/attempted at "equality" and mobility versus Indian's caste system
A Japanese samurai -
showing protection from male & male dominance
Trung Sisters of Vietnam - showing heroic women
symbolizing high value of women
Islam, Hindusim
Buddhism
Hindusim and Buddhism
Islam
The Feudal System-giving and keeping pieces of land to workers
Fief -
piece of land or right given to a vassal
Full transcript