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Our Solar System

A Prezi on our Solar System for Mr. Clinton's period 8 Earth Science class
by

Andrew Stewart

on 22 October 2013

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Transcript of Our Solar System




The planet Earth is over 9.5 million times bigger than the size of Acton
Image Source:
http://www.bostoncoasters.com/sources/234/images/5368-500h.jpg
But the Earth only comprises a small part of...
Image Source:
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/4a/Earth_Viewed_From_Space.jpg
Our Solar System
Background Images:
http://d1jqu7g1y74ds1.cloudfront.net/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/hartley2lores.jpg
http://scienceblogs.com/startswithabang/files/2013/02/PerseusCluster_041008_0412141.jpeg
http://i.telegraph.co.uk/multimedia/archive/01563/stars_1563134c.jpg
The Sun
The Sun is a star at the center of our Solar System. The Sun is really just a giant ball of gas. It is because of the Sun that we have life on Earth.
Image Source:
http://sun-world.net/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/field/image/sun_transparent_background_sun-world.png?itok=r9c0AC8K
Scientists believe that the Sun was formed from a collapsing of gas in an ancient interstellar cloud. This cloud formed our Solar System and most of the mass in this cloud went to the center, which later formed the Sun. The mass in the center eventually began to collapse on itself under it's own gravity. It later started to fuse hydrogen nuclei into helium.
Image Source:
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/22/Earth_Western_Hemisphere_transparent_background.png
Image Source:
http://www.cvadrat.com/imagebank/pngs/planetary/gallery3/Virtual%20Planets%20Mercury%20Planet%2002.png
Mercury
Venus
Image Source:
http://www.cvadrat.com/imagebank/pngs/planetary/gallery3/Virtual%20Planets%20Venus%20Planet%2001.png
The Earth
Mars
Image Source:
http://space-facts.com/wp-content/uploads/mars-transparent.png
Jupiter
Image Source:
http://space-facts.com/wp-content/uploads/jupiter-transparent.png
Saturn
Uranus
Image Source:
http://space-facts.com/wp-content/uploads/uranus-transparent.png
Neptune
Image Source:
http://space-facts.com/wp-content/uploads/neptune-transparent.png
The Sun Pictures
The image to the right is an image of our Sun, Sol. The image was taken September 14, 1999 by the SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory) spacecraft. Source of Image: http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/jpegMod/PIA03149_modest.jpg
Right: The SOHO Spacecraft. The description of the SOHO project, as stated on their site, is "a project of international cooperation between
ESA and NASA to study the Sun, from its deep core to the outer corona, and the solar wind."
Image Source:
http://sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/gallery/Spacecraft/large/Bottom02black_prev.jpg
Predictions from NASA-supported laboratories are that the Sun's magnetic fields will soon flip. A total reversal of the fields would have many implications throughout the Solar System. The Sun has a magnetic influence that reaches way beyond Pluto. This magnetic field also protects us from much of the cosmic rays produced from violent events in our galaxy. During a reversal these rays may penetrate into our Solar Systems. This could pose a potentate hazard to space probes and astronauts and some speculate that cosmic rays affect Earth's climate.
Image Source: http://www.leif.org/research/Solar-Polar-Fields-1966-now.png
The Sun's Magnetic Poles Reversal
The Sun has reverses its polarity about every 11 years, as shown in this chart
Interesting Fact 1
The Rotation of the Sun
Interesting Fact 2
Image Source: http://scienceblogs.com/startswithabang/files/2010/10/rotation.gif
The Sun, like the planets, does rotate. But because the Sun is comprised of hydrogen gas the Sun's rotation varies by the part of the Sun. The way we observe rotation is by looking at the sunspots on the Sun. By doing so we can tell that the Sun rotates about once every 27 days at the equator and about once every 31 days at the poles. This is called differential rotation, which can also be observed in Jupiter and Saturn.
Period of Revolution:
Number of Natural Satellites:
Distance from the Sun:
Fast Facts
Period of Rotation:
58 Earth Days and 15.5 Hours
About 88 Days
None
57.91 million km (0.387 AU)
Mercury Images
Image Source: http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/jpegMod/PIA15161_modest.jpg
Image Source: http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/jpegMod/PIA16666_modest.jpg
Image Source: http://messenger.jhuapl.edu/the_mission/artistimpression/images/MessengerOrbitA.jpg
The following images of Mercury were taken by the MESSENGER spacecraft (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging)
Right. An artists conception of what the MESSENGER spacecraft would look like in front of a planet
The Unseen Half
Interesting Fact 3
Image Source: http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/image/spacecraft/mariner10.gif
The Mariner 10 Spacecraft
Until the MESSENGER mission, we did not have close up pictures of a half of Mercury. The pictures we did have came from the Mariner 10 spacecraft which captured
images from 1974-1975. Mariner ran out of fuel and never got close up images of half of Mercury. We did not get these images until 2008 when the MESSENGER spacecraft got very high quality closeups of Mercury.
Einstein's Helper
Interesting Fact 2
Image Source: http://www.nhn.ou.edu/~jeffery/astro/astlec/lec025/perihelion_shift.gif
A Diagram of Mercury's Orbit
When scientists were trying to predict the orbit of the planets with mathematical calculations, they realized there was something wrong with Mercury's movements. They could not figure out why the closet point of Mercury's orbit was moving slowly around the sun. Only with Einstein's theory of general relativity was predicting it possible.
Possible Ice
Interesting Fact 1
Image Source: http://econintersect.com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/z-temp59.png
A picture demonstrating the ice of Mercury
Although Mercury is the closest planet to the sun, it is very likely that there is ice on it. There are regions of Mercury which never get sunlight. These areas could be hundreds of
degrees below zero, and water could last millions of years in there. The MESSENGER space craft determined there was excess hydrogen in these region, a compelling piece of evidence for ice.
Period of Revolution:
Number of Natural Satellites:
Distance from the Sun:
Fast Facts
Period of Rotation:
About 243 Earth Days*
About 224 Days
None
108.2 km
(0.723 AU)
*Venus rotates retrograde to Earth
Einstein's Helper
Interesting Fact 1
Image Source: http://www.nhn.ou.edu/~jeffery/astro/astlec/lec025/perihelion_shift.gif
A Diagram of Mercury's Orbit
When scientists were trying to predict the orbit of the planets with mathematical calculations, they realized there was something wrong with Mercury's movements. They could not figure out why the closet point of Mercury's orbit was moving slowly around the sun. Only with Einstein's theory of general relativity was predicting it possible.
Venus Images
Image Source: http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/jpegMod/PIA00257_modest.jpg
The image to the right was compiled using radar images from the MAGELLAN spacecraft and overlaying them on a globe. Information from other missions, such as the Pioneer Venus Orbiter and the Soviet Venera 13 and 14, were used to enhance the picture.
Image Source: http://www2.jpl.nasa.gov/magellan/gif/p34252.gif
Image Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/68/Magellan_-_artist_depiction.png
Left. An artists conception of the MAGELLAN spacecraft by Venus

Right. The MAGELLAN spacecraft attached to the rocket
by Andrew Stewart - P8
The Kuiper Belt
Image Source: http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/multimedia/gallery/Oort_Cloud.jpg
Period of Revolution:
Number of Natural Satellites:
Distance from the Sun:
Fast Facts
Period of Rotation:
23 hours 55 minutes
365 days 6.5 hours
One
149.5 million km (1 AU)
Image Source: http://space-facts.com/wp-content/uploads/saturn-transparent.png
Period of Revolution:
Number of Natural Satellites:
Distance from the Sun:
Fast Facts
Period of Rotation:
24 hours 35 minutes
687 days
228 million km (1.524 AU)
Two
Period of Revolution:
Number of Natural Satellites:
Distance from the Sun:
Fast Facts
Period of Rotation:
10 hours
4231 days 14.5 hours
778,412,010 km (5.2 AU)
67
Period of Revolution:
Number of Natural Satellites:
Distance from the Sun:
Fast Facts
Period of Rotation:
10 hours 14 minutes
10,752 days 21.5 hours
1,427 million km (9.529 AU)
53 Known
Period of Revolution:
Number of Natural Satellites:
Distance from the Sun:
Fast Facts
Period of Rotation:
17 hours 14 minutes
30,663 days 15.5 hours
2,871 million km (19.2 AU)
21
Period of Revolution:
Number of Natural Satellites:
Distance from the Sun:
Fast Facts
Period of Rotation:
16 hours 7 minutes
60,152 days
4,501 million km (30.06 AU)
8
Image Source: http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/multimedia/gallery/NEA_Orbits.jpg
The Asteroid Belt
Image Source: http://www.cnes.fr/automne_modules_files/standard/public/p8123_3bf010c5ff3014c0190f4ed6a0d052ddrosetta2.jpg
67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko
The Comet
Earth Photos
Image Source: http://eoimages.gsfc.nasa.gov/images/imagerecords/57000/57723/globe_east_540.jpg
The image to the right is an image of the planet Earth taken by the satellite Terra. The mission of this satellite is to answer the questions "How is the Earth changing and what are the consequences for life on Earth?"
Image Source: http://www2.hawaii.edu/~jmaurer/terra/terra.jpg
Left. An artists conception of what the Terra satellite looks like orbiting Earth.
Mars Images
Right. An image of Mars taken by the Hubble telescope. It is a true color image showing what the planet would look lie to the human eye.
Image Source: http://imgsrc.hubblesite.org/hu/db/images/hs-1999-07-b-web.jpg
Image Source: http://hubblesite.org/the_telescope/hubble_essentials/graphics/telescope_essentials_introduction1_lg.jpg
Left. An image of the Hubble telescope in orbit. The image was taken during a servicing mission.
Jupiter Images
Image Source: http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/jpegMod/PIA14410_modest.jpg
This image is actually an image from the ground of Jupiter. The picture was used with the Juno mission.
Image Source: http://www.nasa.gov/images/content/567923main_junospacecraft0711_670.jpg
Right. An image detailing the Juno Spacecraft
Saturn Images
Image Source: http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/jpegMod/PIA11613_modest.jpg
The image above is an image of Saturn, taken by the Cassini-Huygens spacecraft.
Left. An artists conception of the Cassini-Huygen spacecraft in front of Saturn.
Image Source: http://d1jqu7g1y74ds1.cloudfront.net/wp-content/uploads/2010/06/Cassini-spacecraft_0.jpg
Uranus Images
Image Source: http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/jpegMod/PIA01488_modest.jpg
Image Source: http://voyager.jpl.nasa.gov/images/inner/inlineImg310x230_voyager.jpg
The image to the right is an image of Uranus taken by the Voyager spacecraft.
Left. An image of the Voyager spacecraft. Now in interstellar space.
Neptune Image
The image is an image of Uranus taken by the Voyager spacecraft.
Image Source: http://voyager.jpl.nasa.gov/imagesvideo/images/voyager2_large.jpg
Image Source: http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/jpegMod/PIA01142_modest.jpg
Interesting Facts
Fact #1:
We have life. Earth is the only planet we know of that supports life.
Fact #2:
We have a magnetic field has a result of our iron core. This field protects us from radiation.
Fact #3:
The atmosphere of Earth extends out 10,000 km. Although the thickest part is within 50 km.
Interesting Facts
Fact #1:
Some parts of Mars are on Earth. Some of the debris of asteroid impacts on Mars has landed on Earth.
Fact #2:
Mars' moon Phobos is eventually going to crash into Mars within the next 10-50 million years.
Fact #3:
Besides Earth, Mars is the most studied planet.
Interesting Facts
Fact #1:
Jupiter is the fastest spinning planet in the Solar System. It takes 10 hours for a full rotation of Jupiter.
Fact #2:
Jupiter has a magnetic field which is 14 times stronger than Earth's. This field produces dangerous radiation.
Fact #3:
Jupiter has rings. They most likely came from material ejected from meteorite impacts.
Interesting Facts
Fact #1:
If you were able to submerge Saturn in water, it would float. It is less dense.
Fact #2:
It took a long time to determine how long a day is on Saturn. We had to use it's magnetic field.
Fact #3:
Winds on Saturn can be 1,800 km per hour around the equator.
Fun Fact: The day Saturday is named after Saturn
Interesting Facts
Fact #1:
Uranus rotates on its side. It rotates around the sun at a 90 degree angle.
Fact #2:
Uranus is the coldest planet in our Solar System. The cloud tops of Uranus can go to -224 degrees Celsius.
Fact #3:
Uranus was the first planet discovered in the modern era. It was discovered in 1781.
Interesting Facts
Fact #1:
Neptune's gravity is very similar to Earth's gravity. It is only 17% stronger.
Fact #2:
There has only been one mission to Neptune, Voyager, and there are no plans for missions to Neptune currently
Fact #3:
Neptune has the strongest winds in the Solar System. They get up to 2,100 km per hour.
What is It?
How was it Formed?
Interesting Facts
The Asteroid Belt is a region of space between Mars and Jupiter were most astroids are found. Asteroids are small rocky bodies orbiting the sun.
It was formed from remnants of a protoplanetary disk, these remnants did not merge due to the inhibiting gravity of Jupiter
Fact #1
Asteroids can have moons. This was discovered in 1993 by the spacecraft Galileo.
Fact #2
NASA has a NEAT team (Near Earth Asteroid Tracking) that monitors asteroids and determines if any are heading for Earth
What is it?
Comet Churyumov-Gerasimenk is a comet that has an orbital period of 6.45 years.
How was it Formed?
Comets are left over material from the formation of the planets. Some produced icy comets where the tempatures allowed it.
Interesting Facts
Fact #1
Comet 67P is the site for ESA's Rosetta mission, they are attempting to have a probe land on the comet
Fact #2
A 3-D model of the comet was constructed and computer generated images were created
What is it?
What is it?
It is a disc-shaped region of icy objects beyond the orbit of Neptune
Have did it Form?
It formed from planetesimals that formed beyond Neptune's orbit and never cohered
Interesting Facts
Fact #1
NASA's New Horizons mission is the first mission to the Kuiper Belt. It is projected to do its exploration between the years 2018 and 2022
Fact #2
Pluto is a dwarf planet within the Kuiper Belt.
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