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Transcript of The troubles
The Groups Involved:
Factors leading to the Troubles:
- Ulster Volunteer Force
- Against Irish republicanism
- Northern Ireland --> Remain as part of the United Kingdom
- Irish Republican Army
- fighting for Northern Ireland
- become independent from the United Kingdom --> one united Ireland.
- Quite few
- Main groups: UVF and IRA
The IRA is fighting for Ireland.
The UVF is fighting for Northern Ireland.
Ireland was fought over for centuries by the Celtic and English Tribes as to who would hold control over it.
The Englishmen living in Ireland crowned King Henry VIII as King of Ireland.
English farmers are sent to conquer Irish lands by King James.
- English Protestants --> harsh laws into effect
- Put the Irish Catholics at a disadvantage
Ireland officially becomes part of Great Britain.
The potato blight occurs.
The Easter Rebellion
Why did Great Britain want Ireland?
To expand Britain's empire and power
Resources that came with the land
Restricting their education
Not allowing the Irish Catholics to purchase land
Not allowing them to serve in the army
Banning the Irish Catholics from holding a public or legal profession
Disallowing them to vote
However, Ireland didn't want to be part of Great Britain.
Ireland wanted to be independent.
1 million people died of starvation and disease.
Another 1 million people moved to other areas of the world, like North America and Great Britain.
An organism called Phytophthora infestans killed off the potatoes, Ireland's staple crop.
Irish republicans rebelled against British forces in Dublin, Ireland.
The uprising lasted for 5 days
the Monday after Easter -> April 29, 1916.
The Irish leaders were executed by the British.
The Anglo-Irish War was being fought between the British and the IRA.
Britain relinquished power to most of Ireland, but strengthened its control on Ulster through a treaty.
Many Irish people lived in the midst of poverty due to the feudal land system.
Ireland was not permitted to have a national identity.
There were laws that stated, referring to Ireland as a country, or even wearing green was a felony.
The Troubles Era:
A Period of Fighting
January 30, 1972
Protests --> civil Rights
British prime minister and the irish leader talked
Northern Ireland should be allowed to decide it's future
Representatives from each group shall meet to reach an agreement.
The IRA called for a cease-fire/ truce in August, 1994, and loyalist groups in September, the same year.
December 15, 1993
The Belfast (Good Friday) Agreements
April 10, 1998
- The Republic of Ireland --> officially a free state from British rule
- bound to follow the Republic of Ireland Act.
- The 6 counties of Ulster (northern Ireland) remained in Britain's control.
The first protest takes place
- Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association
- Abolish the Anti-Catholicism
- Create equal rights for Catholics in Northern Ireland
Another group mentioned in this presentation is known as the NICRA.
- Planned by the NICRA, the second protest occurred in Derry.
- It was thought to be an IRA statement.
- NICRA marching in Derry
- British soldiers placed barricades
- Prevent the marchers from entering the city center square
- Onlookers and some marchers directly confronted the soldiers guarding the barricade.
- The soldiers opened fire.
13 were killed and 14 wounded.
- Hunger strikes --> strikes where republican prisoners held by the British government refused to eat as a form of protest.
- Felt their rights as human beings were violated.
- Wanted to be able to wear their own clothing, not a prison uniform.
10 people died as a result of the hunger strikes.
The Belfast Agreements were established on Good Friday in 1998, after months of discussion between all of the groups.
This marked the end of the Troubles era.
Propaganda also played a huge role in the Troubles.
Some of the murals still exist in Belfast, Northern Ireland.
Thank you for watching
Downing Street Declaration
--> Downing Street declaration soon followed.
- Birgitte Skaget
"THE BRITISH ISLES"
- The foundation
- Various events
- My opinion
THE TROUBLES OF