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Transcript of Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egyptian Temples
Pyramids were built for Pharaohs and Queens. Lots of pharaohs were buried in pyramids of many sizes. The first pyramids that were built were called step pyramids they were built about 5,000 years ago. Pyramids were built from the beginning of the Old Kingdom to the end of Middle Kingdom. Over 80 pyramids were built by Ancient Egyptians. The three largest and best preserved pyramids were built in Giza which were built for Khufu the Pharaoh. The Egyptian History started from 2686 B.C. to 2181 B.C. .
Ancient Egyptians believe that temples were the homes of gods and goddesses. Most gods and goddesses were loved by the temple priests and the pharaohs. Temples were also used for community activities. Women often come to temples everyday to offer food or to chat with other women that stop by and some would pray to the temple gods. there would also be grains stored in the temple to share with people who needed food. People also used temples as schools. there are 6 main parts of the temples.
Ancient Egyptian Temples
Ancient Egyptian art
Ancient Egyptian sculptors would be respected as Master Craftsmens. they would use horizontal and vertical lines as grids. Their paintbrushes are made out of reeds and the paint is made out of ground pigments. Master craftsmens do lots of different arts here are some examples hieroglyphics art, statues and jewelery they also made miniature statues to help the gods in their afterlife.
1. Bury the body in hot and dry sand to dehydrate the body.
2. Smash the brain with a long hook and pull it out through the nose.
3.Stuff and cover the body with a salty crystal called Natron.
4.Hide some lucky amulets in the body.
5.Wrap the body with linen.
6. Place the mummy in a sarcophagus.
Steps to mummifying a body
Gods and Goddesses
Ancient Egyptian Gods and Goddesses
The Great Pyramid was part of a complex that included a special walk way to temples, other pyramids and boat pits. Experts estimated that it took 20,00 workers and 23 years to build the great pyramid. the Great Pyramid is over 480 feet tall. Experts also estimated that the Great Pyramid was built using over 2.3 million blocks that weigh 5.9 million tones. Experts are still trying to solve how they built the pyramids. Experts think that Egyptian slaves slowly cut up the blocks and slowly move them to the ramps one at a time. On top of the pyramid would be casing blocks made out of limestone placed on the top so that the pyramid would look smooth. The great pyramids casing blocks were removed in the 14th and 15th centuries to build the city of Cairo. The city of Cairo is the capital of modern egypt located in the northern egypt.
The Great Pyramid
Master craftsmens use lots of materials such as Alabaster, Ivory, Limestone, Basalt and solid gold. Many painting survived for many thousands of years because of the dry climates in Ancient Egypt. They would paint men with dark colours and they would paint women in light colours.
Canopic jars are jars that Ancient Egyptians put organs in. The lid of canopic jars have the 4 sons of Horus. The 4 sons of Horus are Hapi the son that protects the lungs, Duamutef the son that protects the stomach, Imesty the son that protects the liver and Qebehsenuef the son that protects the intestines. The organs would be wrapped in linen then put in the canopic jar and placed in a tomb.
Anubis's appearance was a man with a Jackal head. Anubis is the God of embalming the dead. Anubis was also the god who helped embalm Osiris after he was killed by Seth. Priests wore a mask of Anubis at mummifying ceremonies.
Some Gods and Goddesses took part in creation some bought the flood every year, some took care of the dead and some offered protection. There were over 2,000 Gods. Local Gods made towns and Minor Gods represented the animals and plants. Ancient Egyptians believe in Gods and look up to them so that life goes on smoothly. Egyptian gods all have something unique to set them apart from humans. There are many temples built for more than 1 God. In the temples there are statues of Temple Gods. Egyptians pray to the temple gods a message and then the Temple Gods would give the message to the god they want to reach.
Isis's appearance Is a women with a headdress the shape of a throne. Isis is a Goddess of protection. Isis is the wife of Osiris. An Amulet is also known as the Isis knot, it is a small charm that protects the owner from evil spells or actions, the Isis knot is a symbol of protection. In Philea located in the upper corner of Egypt is a temple honoured to Isis, the temple is still standing today.
In early Egypt people used to bury dead bodies in dry pits so that the heat and the dryness of the sand would quickly dehydrate the body into natural mummies. They also so buried the bodies in dry pits so it would protect the body from wild animals. Later in Ancient Egypt they then realised that the body would decay when it is not in the hot sun but in the coffin. So they started to preserve the bodies so that they would always look life like. Then they would take the organ out of the body and put them in a conopic jar. Lucky Amulets would also be hidden in the body for goodluck in there afterlife. After that they would let the body dry out for 40 days. After the mummification process was finished the body would be placed in a stone coffin called a Sarcophagus. Ancient Egyptians believe in the life after death they mummified bodies so that the spirits could live forever in the afterlife.
1. some mummies were destroyed to make potions, powder and fuel.
2. egyptians would leave the heart in the body because it was the centre of intelligence but the brain was thrown away because they believed that the brain was useless.
Temple honoured to Isis
This is a photo of a mummy
This is a scarphogus
This is what Natron looks like
Qebehsenuef guardian of the intestines
Hapi guardian of the lungs
Duamutef guardian of the stomach
Imesti guardian of the liver
Ra's appearance is a man with a hawk head and a headdress with a sun disk. Ra is a sun god he is also the most important god. Ancient Egyptians believe that Ra was swallowed by the sky god Nut and was reborn every morning. They also believe that at night Ra would be travelled through the under world and would appear as a man with the head of a ram.
Nut's appearance is a woman whose body curves over the sky wearing a dress with stars. Nut is also known as the sister and wife of Geb and the mother of Isis, Osiris, Nepthys and seth. Ancient Egyptians believed that Nut would give birth to Ra every morning.
Nun's appearance is a man carrying a boat. In ancient Egypt there is a myth that Nun was the waters of chaos. Nun was the only thing that existed on the earth before there was land. The first land on earth rose out of Nun.
Hathor is a woman with ears of a cow and a headdress with horns and a sun disk. Hathor is a protective god and also the god of love and joy. Hathor is the wife of Horus and was sometimes thought as the mother of the Pharaoh. Hathor was also the only god that could connect with foreign places and foreign materials. A large temple in Denders was built to honour Hathor.
Temple honoured to Hathor
Ancient Egyptian Art
Ancient Egyptians did lots of art. People can get lots of information from their art such as what they wore, what jobs they did and what they ate, their appearance. Ancient Egyptians believed that art is very religious. They would fill tombs with paintings and sculptures. They would also make little miniature sculptures to help the pharaohs in their afterlife. Ancient Egyptians are famous for all their giant sculptures such as the Great Sphinx of Giza and Ramses 2 at Abu Simbel. The statue of Ramses 2 is 60 feet tall and the Spinx of Giza is 240 feet long. They also believed that the smaller sculptures were more beautiful.
Materials people used to make art
Queen Pyramids are 3 small pyramids built on the eastern side of the pyramids built for Khufu. Next to the Queens pyramids is a small pyramid that experts believe is a symbol for Khufu's spirit.
Inside the Great Pyramid
Inside the Great Pyramid is a burial place for a pharaoh. There are also some items that ancient egyptians think the pharaoh's may need in their after life such as gold ,diamonds and other jewels. That tempted the robbers to steal it so the ancient Egyptians built traps and secret passage ways to catch the robbers. Many robbers have successfully robbed tombs. There is also an inside courtyard that has been built many years ago. They also built storerooms and bedrooms. The walls would also be covered with carvings and paintings. The pharaohs family members and servant would be buried in a small room.
What were temples built out of ?
Temples would be built with stone so that the temple would last forever. They also covered the walls with carved scenes of Pharaohs fighting in battles and doing rituals with the gods.
The Pylon is a large gate in front of the temples it is also the main entrance. The walls of the Pylon is decorated with carvings in the walls that have been painted. Next to the Pylon would be a statue of the Pharaoh that has been honoured in the temple. In front of the Pylon is an obelisk, an obelisk is a tall and long block that is standing upright. The obelisk is covered in metal and hieroglyphics.
The Court Yard
The court yard is big open room without a roof. Like the Pylon the walls in the court yard has painted scenes of pharaohs in battles and the outer walls show scenes of pharaohs making offers to gods.
The Hypostyle Hall
In the Hypostyle hall has columns. The hall is mostly dark except for the centre aisle because there is a small window cut in the wall. There is also normally a statue of the pharaoh honoured in to the temple. Inside Abu Simbel's temple experts have found a Falcon headed sphinx.
Hieroglyphics is a type of ancient egyptian writing, it is the most famous Egyptian writing. Egyptians believed that is was important to record information. Hieroglyphics are normally used in scribe schools, tombs and temples it is also used by the government in Egypt and in the wall. Hieroglyphics can be written vertically and horizontally. It had no vowels and no punctuation. The goal in hieroglyphics is to make the writing beautiful ad look like a piece of art.
The Rosetta stone is written in half greek and half egyptian scribes. (Demotic, Hieroglyphics, Greek). The Rosetta stone is written in 3 different scribes because there 3 different writings that time. The Rosetta stone was written by a priest to honour Egyptian Pharaohs. It lists the things that the Pharaoh did for the priest and all of Egypt. the Rosetta stone was found by a french soldier. It is now on display in the British Museum.
This a Cartouche of my name : )
Great Sphinx of Giza statue
Ramses 2 statue
Limestone casing blocks
Temple of Luxor
Cutaway of Temple of Luxor
Bastet's appearance is a woman with a cats head. Bastet is a gentle and protective god. She sometimes appears as a woman with the head of a lioness.
Atum was the god with 2 crowns. Atum is a creator god. Ancient Egyptians believed that Atum was the first god to ever exist. People also believed that Atum rose out from Nun and created all the gods.
Phta's appearance is a man wrapped in a tight white cloak carrying a staff. Phta is the god of craftsmens. Ancient Egyptians believed that Phta spoke the words and the world came alive.
Ra-Horakhty's appearance is a man with a hawk head. Ra-Horakhty is a combination of Ra and Horus. Ra-Horakhty was the god of rising the sun.