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Mr. Graham is the man.

AP Civics

Sarah Gilbert

on 12 February 2013

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Transcript of Mr. Graham is the man.

POWER! FIGHT THE MAN. Early Americans And Their Early Ideas Declarations Need Inspiration, Too. Religious Traditions Tolerance is Key Becoming Americans Social Contract Theory Direct Democracy Indirect Democracy Republic Monarchy Totalitarianism Oligarchy Liberty and Equality Popular Sovereignty Majority Rule Natural Law Individualism Religious Freedom Proposed by Thomas Hobbes and John Locke, the belief that people are free and equal by natural right and that this in turn requires that all people give their consent to be governed. A system of government in which members of the polity meet to discuss all policy decisions and then agree to abide by majority rule. A system of government that gives citizens the opportunity to vote for representatives who work on their behalf. A government rooted in the consent of the governed; a representative or indirect democracy. A form of government in which power is vested in hereditary kings and queens who govern in the interests of all. A form of government in which power resides in a leader who rules according to self-interest and without regard for individual rights and liberties. A form of government in which the right to participate is conditioned on the possession of wealth, social status, military position, or achievement. The notion that the ultimate authority in society rests with the people. The central premise of direct democracy in which only policies that collectively garner the support of a majority of voters will be made into law. A doctrine that society should be governed by certain ethical principles that are part of nature and, as such, can be understood by reason. A form of government was needed; the first representative assembly in North America was the Virginia House of Burgesses, created in 1619. In the VHoB twenty-two elected officials made laws for the colonists. Another structure was the Massachusetts Bay Colony, where all church members were permitted to participate in town meetings. The more direct form of government was more popular because it allowed more participation of the colonists. It also allowed them to center their government around their religious and cultural views. Religious tolerance was kept in mind of the early colonists. William Penn purchased area that is now present day Delaware where he conducted "The Holy Experiment". This attracted all the Europeans that were persecuted because of their religion, such as Mennonites, Lutherans, and Huguenots. The Puritans came to the new world, specifically Plymouth Massachusetts, to escape the religious persecutions of the church of England. Once in the new world they established a strict form of authority but with individualism in mind. However, they too started persecuting their own who didn't follow or agree with their religious beliefs perfectly. Because of this a midwife named Anne Hutchinson broke away from the religious persecution in Plymouth, to form her own colony in Portsmouth, Rhode Island. This became a place for those seeking religious toleration. The early Americans came for many reasons, but most importantly commerce. The Dutch West Indian Company established trading posts on the Hudson River and the Dutch New Netherlands company settled along the Hudson and lower Delaware Rivers. What is now Albany, New York and what is now Manhattan Island, New York were populated by salaried employees as apposed to colonists. In what is now New York, then named New Amsterdam, was the most diverse area racially which gave it its own diverse culture which still exists today. As soon as the early colonists arrived, they knew they would need some form of government. A lot of different theories and ideas such as the social contract theory, and the Mayflower compact were formed while creating the system of government that we have today. They also experienced with religious freedom and cultural diversities. The constitution was written to ensure life and liberty, however we have lost sight of personal liberty. We are supposed to be granted freedom of speech and religion, among other things. We are supposed to be guaranteed civil rights and liberties. Another key point is political equality. There was a point in time where an African American slave counted as three- fifths a black man, and now we have an African American president. Religious freedom was a big reason that many people came to the new world. Framers had agreed to build the new world on religious freedom, but this was easier said than done. Even today, many Americans are discriminating towards people of the Islam religion because they view it to be a religion of violence. Individualism was very popular among the Puritans. Our emphasis on individualism sets us apart from many other democracies, such as Canada. We all have unalienable rights. Documents that inspired the Declaration of Independence include; the Magna Carta, the English Bill of Rights, the Petition of Right, and John Lockes Second Treaty. Events that influenced the DoI include; the Albany Plan, Stamp Act Congress, the Boston Tea Party, Shays Rebellion, the Boston Massacre, the first and second Continental Congress, the Townshend Acts, the Treaty of Paris, and the North East Confederation. Social Contract- Give up some rights for mutual benefits. (Very beneficial)
Divine Right- One person chosen by GOD.
Evolutionary Theory- Natural form of government (family government). And example would be Native American Tribes.
Force- Force used to gain and stay in power. An example would be Iraq. Establishing Justice The first step to establishing justice is acknowledging legal authorities. To do this, the constitution authorized that Congress create a federal judicial system. The Bill of Rights also established justice by entitling people to a trial by jury, to be informed of the charges against them, and to be tried in a courtroom with an impartial judge. Be tranquil, dudes. The Department of Homeland Security
Police Forces
National Guards Providing for the Common Defense. The government needed to provide defense against the threat of foreign aggression. To do so, the President is appointed commander in chief of the armed forces and Congress has the ability to raise an army. Promoting the General Welfare This was originally more of an ideal than a mandate for the government. Even today, however, there is still no universal agreement of what the government should do. Secure The Blessings of Liberty Part of being an American is enjoying the freedoms that our country offers us. If we as Americans feel that the government is not doing their job we have the right to protest the actions of Congress and the President. Racial and Ethnic Compositions. Age is but a number. Some more religious beliefs. Regional Growth and Expansion. FAAAMILY! Political Ideology. Ideological Labels and their Issues. America is full of many different races and ethnicity because of the vast immigration into the country. Europeans, Africans, the Irish, the Chinese, Asians, Cubans, Mexicans, and many others. And they all came here for different reasons. Immigration to the United States first peaked in the 1900's when nearly 9million immigrants came to America. We it wasn't until the 1980's, however, that it peaked again when nearly two million immigrants were admitted in one year. Today nearly 40 million people in the U.S. are considered immigrants; most being hispanic. Because of this the government has made accommodations, like printing documents in English and Spanish, to benefit the spanish speaking citizens. 40 percents of Americans under the age of 25 are considered to be in a minority group. When the U.S. was founded the life expectancy was 35 years of age. In 2010 is was 81 for women and 73 for men. This costs the government more money because more people reach the age where they qualify for Social Security and Medicare. The reason many people first came to America was to pursue religious freedom. Although there were numerous different religions, the all identified with the Christian religion, and they saw the Indian religion of multiple Gods as unholy. Since then Jews, Buddhists, Hindus, and Muslims have also established roots in the country. Regions split up between those seeking commerce, religious freedom, and political freedom. One of the biggest regional differences was that between the North and the South. The West was also different, composed mostly of those seeking free land and gold. The U.S. has evolved greatly from what the "typical family" used to be. Women used to be stay at home moms, men went to work, and all the families had lots of kids. The first changes began in the 1900's when kids were no longer needed for the survival of the household, and families cut back on the amount of kids they had. In 1994 four or more children was the "ideal" family, by 2007 56 percent of families favored two or fewer children. Another difference was how long couples stayed together. By 2008 69.9 percent of children under the age of 18 lived with only one of their parents. Conservative- One who believes that a government is best that governs least an that big government should not infringe on individual, personal, and economic rights. Social Conservative- One who believes that traditional moral teachings should be supported and furthered by the government. Liberal- One who favors governmental involvement in the economy and in the provision of social services and who takes an activist role in protecting the right of women, the elderly, minorities, and the environment. Moderate- A person who takes a relatively centrist or middle-of-the-road view on most political issues. Libertarian- One who believes in limited government and no governmental interference in personal liberties. The problems with ideological labels are that those who may call themselves conservatives, often follow liberal positions on policy issues. This is just one example, however. The bottom line is that even with all of the labels, it is hard to classify people because they fall under multiple labels. Roots of the New American Nation Most people first came to the New World to escape religious persecution. At first the colonies were still tied to the crown through the Virginia House of Burgesses. After a while, however, each of the thirteen colonies had written its own constitution and was no longer tied to the crown. Trade and Taxation Mercantilism- An economic theory designed to increase a nations wealth through the development of commercial industry and a favorable balance of trade. Mercantilism justified Britain's maintenance of strict import/export controls on the colonies. Britain tried to control the colonies, and initiated the Seven Years war for land in the Americas. At the end of the was the Treaty of Paris was signed and increased the amount of land owned by Great Britain in the Americas. Then, to raise money to pay for the war Parliament issued the Sugar Act. This caused a colonial depression and a resentment of the tax. Then the Stamp Act was passed, which only increased the hatred of the tax more. Then the Quartering Act was passed, which again increased hatred. Sugar Act- Placed taxes on sugar, wine, coffee, and other products commonly exported to the colonies. Stamp Act- Required that all paper items bought and sold in the colonies carry a stamp mandated by the crown. Quartering Act- Required the colonists to furnish barracks to provide living quarters within their own homes for British troops. Baby Steps Stamp Act Congress- Meeting of representatives of nine of the thirteen colonies held in New York City in 1765, during which representatives drafted a document to send to the king listing how their rights had been violated. Committees of Correspondence- Organization in each of the American colonies created to keep colonists abreast of developments with the British; served as powerful molders of public opinion against the British. The stamp act congress did little to stop the onslaught of taxing measures. It did however, get the Stamp Act and Sugar Act repealed. Townshend Acts- Imposed duties on all kinds of colonial imports, including tea. First Continental Congress Meeting held in Philadelphia from September 5 to October 26, 1774, in which fifty-six delegates (from every colony except Georgia) adopted a resolution in opposition to the Coercive Acts. Second Continental Congress Meeting that convened in Philadelphia on May 10, 1775, at which it was decided that an army should be raised and George Washington of Virginia was named commander in chief. The Declaration of Independence Document drafted by Thomas Jefferson in 1776 that proclaimed the right of the American colonies to separate from Great Britain. The Articles of Confederation The compact among the thirteen original colonies that created a loose league of friendship, with the national government drawing its powers from the states. Confederation- Type of government where the national government derives its powers from the states; a league of independent states. Problems with the Articles There was a lack of national identity
Congress could rarely get the needed nine states to assemble.
The government had no resources to back up its currency.
There was no provision for an executive branch of government.
There was a lack of a strong central government. Shays Rebellion A 1786 rebellion in which an army of 1,500 disgruntled and angry farmers led by Daniel Shays marched to Springfield, Massachusetts, and forcibly restrained the state court from foreclosing mortgages on their farms. Writing the Constitution Constitution- A document establishing the structure, functions, and limitations, of a government. Fifty-five delegates attended the Constitutional Convention. George Washington of Virginia was unanimously elected the conventions presiding officer. The Virginia Plan The first general plan for the Constitution offered in Philadelphia. Its key points were a bicameral legislature, and an executive and a judiciary chosen by the national legislature. New Jersey Plan A framework for the Constitution proposed by a group of small states. Its key points were a one-house legislature with on vote for each state, a Congress with the ability to raise revenue, and a Supreme Court with members appointed for life. The Great Compromise The final decision of the Constitutional Convention to create a two-house legislature with the lower house elected by the people and with powers divided between the two houses. It also made national law supreme. Fractions are for Dummies. Three-Fifths Compromise- Agreement reached at the Constitutional Convention stipulating that each slave was to be counted as three-fifths of a person for purposes of determining population for representation is the U.S. House of Representatives. Federalism Federal System- System of government where the national government and state governments share power, derive all authority from the people, and the powers of the government are specified in a constitution. Separation of Powers A way of dividing the power of government among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches, each staffed separately,with equality and independence of each branch ensured by the Constitution. Checks and Balances A constitutionally mandated structure that gives each of the three branches of government some degree of oversight and control over the actions of the others. Article I The Legislative Branch-established a bicameral legislature consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives. Enumerated Powers- Seventeen specific powers granted to Congress under Article I, section 8, of the constitution. Article II The Executive Branch- has the authority to execute laws of the nation. Necessary and Proper Clause- The final paragraph of Article I, section 8, of the constitution, which gives Congress the authority to pass all laws 'necessary and proper' to carry out the enumerated powers specified in the Constitution; also called the elastic clause. Implied Powers- Powers derived from the enumerated powers and the necessary and proper clause. These powers are not stated specifically but are considered to be reasonably implied through the exercise of delegated powers. Article III The Judicial Branch- establishes a supreme court and defines its jurisdictions. Articles IV through VII Attempted to anticipate problems that might occur in the operation of the new national government as well as it relations to the states. Full Faith and Credit Clause- Section of Article IV of the Constitution that ensures judicial decrees and contracts made in one state will be binding and enforceable in any other state. Supremacy Clause- Portion of Article VI of the U.S. Constitution and sating that national law is supreme to (that is, supersedes) all other laws passed by the states or by any other subdivision of government. The Federalists Papers A series of eighty-five political essay written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay in support of ratification of the U.S. Constitution. Formal Methods Formal methods of Amending the Constitution are having a vote of two-thirds of the members in both houses of Congress or a vote of two-thirds of the state legislatures specifically requesting Congress to call a national convention to propose amendments. Informal Methods Informal methods of Amending the Constitution are judicial interpretation and social and cultural change. Ratifying the Constitution The constitution was finally ratified in 1790 under the threats from is largest cities to secede from the state. It was ratified by only two votes (34-32). THE FEDS ARE COMING. Federal System System of government where the national government and state governments share power and derive all authority from the people. Confederation Type of government where the national government derives its powers from the states; a league of independent states. Unitary System System of government where the local and regional governments derive all authority from a strong national government. National Powers Under the Constitution. Coin money. Conduct foreign relations. Provide an army and navy and declare war. Also known as the Enumerated Powers. Supremacy Clause The national government is to be supreme in situations of conflict between state and national law. Tenth Amendment The final part of the Bill of Rights that defines the basic principle of American federalism in stating that the powers not delegated to the national government are reserved to the states or to the people. Reserved Powers Powers reserved to the states by the Tenth Amendment that lie at the foundation of a state's right to legislate for the public health and welfare of its citizens. Concurrent Powers Powers shared by the national and state governments. State Powers "The powers not delegated tot he United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people" Bill of Attainder A law declaring an act illegal without a judicial trial. Ex Post Facto Law Law that makes an act punishable as a crime even if the action was legal at the time it was committed. Full Faith and Credit Clause Section of Article IV of the Constitution that ensures judicial decrees and contracts made in one state will be binding and enforceable in any state. Privileges and Immunities Clause Part of Article IV of the Constitution guaranteeing that the citizens of each state are afforded the same rights as citizens of all other states. Extradition Clause Part of Article IV of the Constitution that requires states to extradite, or return, criminals to states where they have been convicted or are to stand trial. Interstate Compacts Contracts between states that carry the force of law; generally now used as a tool to address multistate policy concerns. McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) The Supreme Court upheld the power of the national government and denied the right of a state to tax the federal bank using the Constitution's supremacy clause. The Courts broad interpretation of the necessary and proper clause paved the way for later rulings upholding expansive federal powers. Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) The Supreme Court upheld broad congressional power to regulate interstate commerce. The Court's broad interpretation of the Constitution's commerce clause paved the way for later rulings upholding expansive federal powers. Barron v. Baltimore (1833) The Supreme Court ruled that the due process clause of the Fifth Amendment did not apply to the actions of states. This decision limited the Bill of Rights to the actions of Congress alone. Dual Federalism The belief that having separate and equally powerful levels of government is the best arrangement. Dred Scott v. Sandford (1875) The Supreme Court concluded that the U.S Congress lacked the constitutional authority to bar slavery in the territories. This decision narrowed the scope of national power, while it enhanced that of the states. Nullification The purported right of a state to declare void a federal law. Sixteenth Amendment Amendment to the U.S. Constitution that authorized Congress to enact a national income tax. Seventeenth Amendment Amendment to the U.S. Constitution that made senators directly elected by the people, removing their selection from state legislatures. Cooperative Federalism The intertwined relationship between the national, state, and local governments that began with the New Deal. Marble Cake Federalism Refers to cooperative federalism. Layer Cake Federalism Each layer of the government- national, state, and local- had clearly defined powers and responsibilities. This was before the Depression and the New Deal. Categorical Grants Grant that allocated federal funds to states for a specific purpose. Block Grants A large grant given to a state by the federal government with only general spending guidelines. New Federalism Federal-state relationship proposed by Reagan administration during the 1980s; hallmark is returning administrative powers to the state governments. Devolution Revolution Republican candidates pledged to force a national debate on the role of the national government in regard to the states.
Republican candidates took back the House of representatives for the first time in more than forty years.
Very few proposals became law.
Unfunded mandates
Temporary Assistance for Needy Families. Unfunded Mandates National laws that direct state or local governments to comply with federal rules or regulations (such as clean air or water standards) but contain little or no federal funding to defray the cost of meeting these requirements. Progressive Federalism Movement that gives state officials significant leeway in acting on issues normally considered national in scope, such as the environmental and consumer protection. Bush and the Feds Bush wanted to move the power to the states. Judicial Federalism The Supreme Courts impact on the federal system generally was to expand the national governments authority at the expense of the states. CONGRESS The framers of the United States Congress created a bicameral Congress consisting of a House of Representatives and a Senate. They were familiar with the British system of government which featured a bicameral legislature with a House of Lords and a House of Commons. Bicameral Legislature = two types of representation.
The House represents the people while the Senate represents the states. The House of Representatives 435 Members
Two-year terms
At least 25 years of age
A citizen for 7 years
A resident of the state from which he or she is elected The Senate 100 members
Six-year terms
At least 30 years of age
A citizen for 9 years
A resident of the state from which he or she is elected Members of the House are elected by eligible voters. Members of the Senate were originally chosen by state legislatures. The Seventeenth Amendment mandated that the senators be elected by voters in each state. Elections Special Powers House of Representatives: Initiates revenue bills
Brings charges of impeachment against the president, vice president, and all civil officers of the United States.
Chooses the president when the electoral college is deadlocked. The Senate: Ratifies treaties negotiated by the president
Possesses the sole power to try or judge impeachment cases
Confirms judicial appointments, including United States attorneys, federal judges, and United States Supreme Court justices
Confirms executive appointments, including cabinet heads, the director of the FBI, and the U.S. attorney general PRESIDENCY Line-Item Veto The authority of a chief executive to delete part of a bill passed by the legislature that involves taxing or spending. Ruled unconstitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court. The Veto Power The formal, constitutional authority of the president to reject bills passed by both houses of Congress, thus preventing them from becoming law without further congressional action. Executive Privilege An implied presidential power that allows the president to refuse to disclose information regarding confidential conversations or national security to Congress or the judiciary. The Cabinet The formal body of presidential advisers who head the fifteen executive departments. Presidents often add others to this body of formal advisers. Executive Office of the President (EOP) A mini-bureaucracy created in 1939 to help the president oversee the executive branch bureaucracy. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) The office that prepares the president's annual budget proposal, reviews the budget and programs of the executive departments, supplies economic forecasts, and conducts detailed analyses of proposed bills and agency bills. Federal Bureaucracy! The Spoils System The firing of public-office holders of a defeated political party to replace them with loyalists of the newly elected party. Pendleton Act Reform measure that established the principle of federal employment on the basis of open, competitive exams and created the Civil Service Commission. Independent Regulatory Commission. An entity created by Congress outside a major executive department. Independent Executive Agencies. Governmental units that closely resemble a Cabinet department but have narrower areas of responsibility, and perform services rather than regulatory functions. Departments Major administrative units with responsibility for a broad area of government operations. Departmental status usually indicates a permanent national interest in a particular governmental function, such as defense, commerce, or agriculture. Government Corporations Business established by Congress to perform functions that could be provided by private businesses. Regulations Rules that govern the operation of all government programs that have the force of law. Iron Triangles The relatively stable relationships and patterns of interaction that occur among agencies, interest groups, and congressional committees or subcommittees. Issue Networks The loose and informal relationships that exist among a large number of actors who work in broad policy areas. Executive Orders Rule or regulation issued by the president that has the effect of law. All executive orders must be published in the Federal Register. Presidential Qualifications and Terms of Office Must be a natural born citizen of the United States
At least thirty five years of age
A resident of the United States for at least fourteen years
Executive Power An implied presidential power that allows the president to refuse to disclose information regarding confidential conversations or national security to Congress or the judiciary. The Appointment Power
To help the president enforce laws passed by Congress, the president can appoint "Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law". Chief Diplomat Makes treaties with foreign nations. Works to keep and negotiate the peace.
Example: Reagan worked with Gorbacker to end arms race during the height of the cold War. Commander in Chief Controls military through the Department of Defense and Congress.
Example: Bush declared Iraq to be a threat to peace and sent troops to Iraq after recent 9-11 attacks. Bureaucratic Regulation Making 1. Judicial Decision 2. New Legislation 3. Executive Decision
4. Interest Group 5. Media

1. New rules- banning d-word
2. OMB reviews- cost
3. Advanced Notice of Rule- Public
4. Published in federal register
5. Comments Evaluated- "Bill" gets amended
6. OMB Reviews
7. New Regulation Published in federal register The Public Presidents, first ladies, and other presidential advisers travel all over the world to publicize their views and to build personal support as well as support for administration programs.
Media RadioNewsreelTelevisionComputersCell phones'The Late Show' etc. The White House Staff The personal assistants to the president, including senior aides, their deputies, assistants with professional duties, and clerical and administrative aides. The Constitutional Powers of the President The Appointment Power
The Power to Convene Congress
The Power to Make Treaties
The Veto Power
The Power to Preside over the Military as Commander in Chief
The Pardoning Power
Apportionment Size shall be apportioned or distributed among the states based on their respective populations. Reapportionment The Constitution directs Congress to reapportion (reallocate) House seats after a census taken at ten-year intervals. Reapportionment is important because it increases or decreases both the number of seats a state has in the House. Districts The Constitution does not define or discuss congressional districts. In 1824, Congress stipulated that all seats in the House of Representatives would be filled from single-member districts. Gerrymandering Gerrymandering is the legislative process by which the majority party in each state legislature redraws congressional districts to ensure that maximum number of seats for its candidates. Supreme Court Limitations on Gerrymandering Districts must be equally populated.
Districts must be compact.
Redistricting cannot dilute minority voting strength.
District lines cannot be drawn based solely on race. Congressional Elections Incumbency During the last 50 years, incumbency has been the single most important factor in determining the outcome of congressional elections. Reasons why incumbents win:
Money (they receive more than their challengers)
Visibility (better known)
Constituent service (important for reelection)
The Franking privilege (ability to mail newsletters to their constituents at the governments expense)
Gerrymandering How Congress is Organized The House Much larger than the Senate
The Speaker of the House
The Majority Leader
The Minority Leader
Whips The Senate Less formally organized
The Vice President
President pro tempore
The majority
The minority The Committee System Committees play a dominant role in congressional policymaking
Standing committees (permanent bodies)
Select committees (special panels for a specific purpose)
Joint committees (members of both houses)
Conference committees (temporary bodies) House Rules Committees Controlled by the Speaker
Set guidelines for floor debate
Ways and Means Has jurisdiction on all taxation, tariffs, and other revenue-raising measures. Chairs and Seniority System Committee chairs exercise great power and enjoy considerable prestige.
Chairs are elected positions. The Legislative Process lengthy, deliberate, fragmented, and characterized by negotiation and compromise.
Anyone can write a bill.
Business, labor, agriculture, and other interest groups often draft bills.
Only members of Congress can introduce bills.
Bills are assigned a number and then sent to an appropriate committee.
Most bills die in committee.
If a majority of the House wishes to consider a bill that has been pigeonholed, the bill can be blasted out of the committee.
Bills approved by a subcommittee are then returned to the full committee.
Committees can reject the bill or send it to the House or Senate floor with a positive recommendation. The HoR gives the bill a rule.
The bill is debated and a vote is ultimately taken by the full house.
The Senate can perform a filibuster- or talk the bill to death.
If a bill overcomes these obstacles, it will ultimately be voted up or down by the full Senate. If a bill is passed in different versions by the House and the Senate, a conference committee will be formed to work out the differences. In the instructed delegate model, members of Congress cast votes that reflect the preferences of the majority of their constituents.
In the trustee model, members of Congress use their best judgement to make policy in the interests of the people.
In the politico model, members of Congress act as delegates or trustees depending on the issue. Oversight Oversight refers to the congressional review of the activities of an executive agency, department, or office. Foreign Policy Congress has the power to declare war.
The Senate has the power to ratify treaties.
The president is the commander-in-chief and has the power to wage war.
The War Powers Resolution requires the president to notify Congress within 48 hours of deploying troops.
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