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EFFECTIVE GRAMMAR ONE

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by

Augusto Casablanca

on 4 March 2014

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Transcript of EFFECTIVE GRAMMAR ONE

You can talk about the number of times.
SIMPLE PAST AND PAST PROGRESSIVE
The
Past progressive
describes an action that was
in progress
at a
specific time
in
the past
.
The
Simple past
describes an action that was
completed
at a
specific time
in
the past
.
* I
went
to Mexico last year.
* Marie
studied
for her exam last night.
* This morning, we
drank
soda and then, we
ate
chocolate.
* This morning, Juan
was reading
the newspaper.
* At 6 AM, I
was taking
a shower.
(TELL YOUR PARTNER ALL YOU CAN REMEMBER ABOUT THESE TWO TENSES)
I
was eating
pizza when Antonio
arrived
.
When I
saw
Martha, she
smiled
at me.
When I
was watching
TV, my brother
was eating
apples.
Past Progressive
+
Simple Past

or
Simple Past
+
Past Progressive
Simple Past
+
Simple Past
Past Progressive
+
Past Progressive
One action in progress was interrupted by another action.
One action happened right after another finished.
Two actions in progress were happening at the same time.
COMBINATIONS
EFFECTIVE GRAMMAR 1
SIMPLE PAST, PRESENT PERFECT & PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS
What do you remember about their differences?
* Use the simple past for actions that happened and were completed in the past.
I
saw
Juan Jose
two days ago
at the supermarket.
*You can Use past time
expressions:
-Yesterday
-Days ago
-Last month, year
-etc.
* Use the Present Perfect or the Present Perfect Progressive for things that started in the past but were not completed. (They continue up to the present)
-I
have studied
English
for
three years.
-I
have been studying
English
since
2007.
-She
has lived
in Lima
all
her life.
-I
have been living
Lima my
whole
life.
Use them with:
for, since, all, whole.
IN THIS CASE THE PRESENT PERFECT AND PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS HAVE THE SAME MEANING: THE ACTION
IS UNFINISHED.
* Use the
Present Perfect
without time expressions for things that happened in the past but the time is not important (Indefinite).
- I

have seen

that movie.
We don't know when it happened, but it's not important.
The Present Perfect
Without
for, since, all, whole
expresses that the action is
finished.
The Present Perfect
continuous with or without for, since, all, whole expresses that the actions
is unfinished
.
-I have visited Paris
three times.
-I have read that book
twice.
-She's eaten Pizza.

- I have been reading this magazine,
WRITING
Write a few paragraphs about yourself for a personal website. Tell about your interests and hobbies. Use the Simple Past, Present Perfect & Present Perfect Continuous.
(About 10 sentences properly connected.)
* Welcome! I am Andrew and
I've just turned
25 years.
I've been living
in Lima
for 20 years
. A long time, right?

*
I was born
in Arequipa and
I lived
there with my mom and dad
when I was a baby
.

*
I built
this website to share about myself.
I have posted
a lot of pics.
I took most
of my pics
last year
.

*
I have been practicing
an extreme outdoor activity
for two years
: Rappelling.
I love rappelling. The first time
I practiced
it
was in 2012
, during summer...
PAST PERFECT & PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE
What do you know about these tenses?
Past Perfect
For actions that happened
before a specific time
in the past.
Now
2002
visited China
* By 2002, I
had visited
China.
* It was 2002, I
had
already
visited
China.
* Before 2002, I
had
already
visited
China.
Past Perfect Progressive
* By 2012, the singer
had been singing
for 21 years.
* When year 2012 came, the singer
had been singing
for 21 years.
Now
2012
singing
1991
For actions that were
in progress
before a
specific time
in the past. It shows the continuing activity,
not the end result
.
* TO EXPRESS CONCLUSIONS...
... Use the
Past Perfect Progressive
* That was a flawless crime. It was clear that the criminal
had been planning
how to kill her for a long time.
BE CAREFUL...
... When you use WHEN with:
a) Simple Past & Past Perfect
b) Past Progressive & Past Perfect Progressive
Simple Past & Past Perfect
* When Pedro came home, Juan left.
* When Pedro came home, Juan had left.
(First Pedro came home. Then, Juan left.)
(First, Juan left. Then, Pedro came home.)
Past Progressive & Past Perfect Progressive
* When he came home, the maid was cleaning.
* When he came home, the maid had been cleaning.
(The maid was still cleaning when he arrived.)
(The maid wasn't cleaning when he came.
She had already finished.)
* When I arrived the fridge was empty. Someone
had been eating
my food while I was out.
ALREADY & NOT YET
Now
2000
1990
start school
finish school
* By 1998, I had not yet finished school.
* By 2001, I had already finished school.

* By 1996, __________ finished school.
* By 2012, __________ finished school.
FUTURE
What do you know about it? Give examples.
We can use the future tenses when talking about:
* Predictions
* Future plans
* Sudden decisions
* Invitations
* Scheduled Events

PREDICTIONS
* Pollution
is going to
increase next year.
* Pollution
will
increase next year.
BE GOING TO
and
WILL
PREDICTIONS BASED ON EVIDENCE IN THE PRESENT.
* Look at those clouds. It
is going to
rain.
* Look! Those cars
are going to
crash.
BE BOING TO
FUTURE PLANS
* I
am going to
go to a party tomorrow.
* I
will
go to a party tomorrow.
* I
am going
to a party tomorrow.

BE GOING TO
,
WILL
and
PRESENT PROGRESSIVE
SUDDEN DECISION
* I
will
have a hamburger, please.
* Mario needs help. I
will
help him.
WILL
INVITATIONS
*
Will
you join me for coffee?
*
Will
you marry me?
WILL
SCHEDULED FUTURE EVENTS
* The shuttle
leaves
tomorrow at 6 PM.
* I
have
a math test at 3 PM.
SIMPLE PRESENT
FUTURE PROGRESSIVE
What do you know about it?
Give examples.
ACTIONS IN PROGRESS AT A SPECIFIC TIME IN THE FUTURE.
* Tomorrow at 6, I
will be flying
to Paris.
* Tomorrow at 6, I
am going to be flying
to Paris.
Will
or
Be going to
+
Be
+
Verb(-ing)
POLITE QUESTIONS OR REQUEST
* When
will
you visit me?
(informal)
* When
will you be visiting
me?
(polite)
FUTURE PROGRESSIVE
TIME CLAUSES (FUTURE)
* I'll go to the party when I finish my homework.
* When I finish my homework, I'll go to the party.
TIME CLAUSE (Present)
TIME CLAUSE (Present)
MAIN CLAUSE (Future)
MAIN CLAUSE (Future)
TIME CLAUSES
(FUTURE PROGRESSIVE)
* I'll be cooking while Jose is watching TV.
* While Jose is watching TV, I'll be cooking.
MAIN CLAUSE (Future Progressive)
MAIN CLAUSE (Future Progressive)
TIME CLAUSE (Present Progressive)
TIME CLAUSE (Present Progressive)
FUTURE PERFECT
What do you know about it? Give examples.
FOR ACTIONS THAT WILL BE ALREADY COMPLETED BY (BEFORE) A CERTAIN TIME IN THE FUTURE
* By July 2015, I
will have graduated
from Icpna.
Now
I graduated from Icpna
July, 2015
* By 2025, I
will have
already
gotten
married.

* By July this yearl, I will have__________

* By the end of this year,________

* By the end of next year,_________

* By ______________
FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE
What do you know about this tense? Give examples.
FOR ACTIONS THAT WILL BE IN PROGRESS AT A CERTAIN TIME IN THE FUTURE.
* By April, Jose
will have been living
in Arequipa for 1 month. / 5 months
OR
Now
Now
April
April
March
December
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TWO FUTURE EVENTS
(SIMPLE PRESENT + FUTURE PERFECT & FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE)
* By the time
you arrive
,
I will have finished
my homework.
* By the time
I graduate
from Icpna, I
will have been living
with my girlfriend for three years.
-What happens first: Perfect Tenses.
-What happens second: Simple Present.
GERUNDS
AND INFINITIVES
When do we use gerunds and when do we use infinitives?
WE CAN USE A GERUND AS A
SUBJECT
*
Dancing
is fun.
*
Eating
junk food can be dangerous.
*
Not being
with my girlfriend makes me sad.
*
Not paying
attention to class made fail the course.
SOME VERBS ARE FOLLOWED ONLY BY GERUNDS
* I
dislike eating
radish.
* I
dislike Mary's eating
junk food.
* I
dislike her eating
junk food.
SOME VERBS CAN ONLY BE FOLLOWED BY INFINITIVES
* verb + infinitive
* verb + object + infinitive
* Both
Verb + infinitive
* Juan
chose

to visit
Cancun.
* I
hope

to find
Mary at the library.
Verb + Object + Infinitive
* I
urge you to tell
me if you see my boyfriend with another girl.
* Pedro
convinced me to eat
this new ice cream.
Verb+ Infinitive
or
Verb + Object + Infinitive
* I
want to go
to that concert and
I want Jesus to go
, too.
One of my goals is to get married with my girlfriend.

By the end of 2017, we will have saved enough money to do it and also we will have saved money for our honeymoon. It will be expensive.

She wants to get married here in Lima and then travel to Europe for four months. So after we get married, we will leave this city to our honeymoon.

By January, 2018, I will have been traveling for one month and I will have already visited 6 cities...
Make, Have, Let, Help, Get
(5 verbs to remember)
(To cause or require to do something)
MAKE = HAVE = GET
* Have or make + object + base form
* Get + object + infinitive
* She always
has

me

pay
the bills.
*She always
makes

me

pay
the bills.
* She always
gets
me

to
pay
the bills.
HELP
* My sister
helped

me

study
for the exam.
* My sister
helped

me

to

study
for the exam.
* Help + object + base form
or
* Help + object + infinitive
LET
(To permit or allow to do something)
* She
let

me

kiss
her, finally!

* Let + object + base form
* What do you think you will be doing three years from now?
* Three years from now, I
will be traveling
around Europe with my girlfriend.
Europe is my favorite continent.
PRACTICE
* By 2050, what kind of country will Peru have become?
* In my opinion, Peru
will have become
the best country in the world by 2050.
We will be the best.
* Tell me something you always complain about.
* I always complain
about my brother's having
poor manners.
He's always spitting and saying bad words.
* Last month, did your teacher have you study a lot for the exam?
*
Yes, he did.
He
had me study
a lot.
The exam was difficult.
* Would you consider studying abroad?
*
No, I wouldn't.
I wouldn't
consider studying
abroad because I would miss my family.
I would be homesick.
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