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Copy of IB Biology Summer Assignment
Transcript of Copy of IB Biology Summer Assignment
3.Eukaryotic Cells Everything you NEVER wanted to know about...CELLS! 1. Chemical Elements and Water
2. Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins
3. Nucleic Acids The Chemistry of Life featuring...Membranes (Passive and Active) Cellular Energy: Enzymes, Cellular Respiration, and Photosynthesis Generally speaking, enzymes catalyze reactions, both metabolic and anabolic, but this simple explanation makes enzymes crucial to many processes within living organisms. Enzymes: GOING, GOING, gone. Cellular Respiration Converting light, water, and carbon dioxide into glucose and oxygen. Photosynthesis: The Power of the Sun Chemical Elements and Water: The Building Blocks of Life All living things are made of molecules, which are classified into a molecular type. Molecules of similar type share certain qualities. Of these types some of the most essential to life are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins (peptides), and nucleic acids. Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins... The Building Blocks of DNA Nucleic Acids Membranes (Passive & Active) Membrane Structure Membrane Protein Functions Passive Transport: diffusion and osmosis Active Transport and the Cell Endocytosis v. Exocytosis Plant Structure & Function Plant Structure & Growth Transport in Angiospermophytes Reproduction in Angiospermophytes (We could really use a pun here - or a punnet square) Mitosis Q: how do you tell the sex of chromosome?
A: Pull down it's genes. Molecular Genetics DNA Structure DNA Replication Protein Synthesis Protein Functions Meiosis Chromosomes Genes Alleles Mutations This theory ammassed much of its credibility after the invention of the first microscope by Robert Hooke who, using his own intention also discovered the first cells in 1665. Cell Theory Prokaryotic Cells Eukaryotic Cells The most abundant chemical elements are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, are used in the molecular structures of lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids. Elements Found in Living Organisms Other less common elements include:
sulfur...in some amino acids
calcium...co-factor in some acids
phosphorus...phosphate groups in ATP
sodium...in membrane functions In liquid water, molecules form a 'split-second' hydrogen bond even though each may be moving in a different direction. Structure of Water 1. All organisms are composed of one or more cells. 2. Cells are the smallest units of life. 3. All cells come from pre-existing cells. The second theory continues to gain support as scientists have yet to discover a living organism not made of atleast one cell. The first living cells were discovered by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek which he called "animalcules". In 1838, botonist Marthias Schleiden stated that plants are made of "independent and seperate beings" called cells. Louis Pateur's chicken broth sterilizing experiments of the 1860s showed that only after exposure to pre-existing cells was life able to re-establish itself in the chicken broth. All Prokaryotic cells have:
nucleoid containing free floating DNA The Cell Wall Statistical Analysis Means T-tests a graphical representations of the variability of data
can be used to show the range of data or the standard deviation on a graph Error Bars Standard Deviation Causation & Correlation Range the measure of a spread of data
largest observed value - smallest observed value an average of data points
the sum of all observed data values divided by the number of observed values determine whether or not the difference between two sets of data is a significant difference
"p"- the probability that the differnce was caused by chance
"If p = 0.50, we see the difference is due to chance 50% of the time. There is no significant difference in statistics.
If p = 0.05,the difference is due to chance only 5% of the time so therefore, there is a 95% chance that the difference results from the effects of the independent variable. There is a significant difference in statistics. Correlation does not mean causation.
Experiments provide a test which show causation.
Observations drawn without an experiment can only show aorrelation. a measure of how the individual observations of a data set are dispersed or spread out around the mean
determined by a mathematical formula Cells are relatively large, and then in decreasing size order are:
molecules; Functions of life include:
nutrition Because cells in multicellular organisms originate from the same original cell, each cell contain the genetic information of every type of cell to make up the complete organism. Cell reproduction in multicellular organisms facilitates growth and allows for for damaged or dead cells to be replaced. Cells differentiate to carry out specialized funtions by expressing some of their genes but not others. The Plasma Membrane Pili&Flagella Ribosomes The Nucleoid Function: to protect and maintain shape of cell Commonly made of the carbohydrate-protein complex peptidoglycan Some bacteria also have another polysaccharide layer outside the cell wall to facilitate adhesion to teeth, food, skin, etc. Function: controls movement of materials in and out of the cell & is also a component of the binary fission processes Pili: hair-like growths outside the cell that are used for attraction and join bacterial cells together in preparation for DNA transfer Flagellum: a longer hair-like growth outside the cell that allow cell mobility Are present in all prokaryotic cells and function as the site of protein synthesis While small in size, they appear in large quantities in cells with high protein production giving the cell a granular appearance when examined through an electron micrograph. Without compartmentalization this region contains a single strand of DNA with the genetic information of the entire cell making the nucleoid responsible for cell control and reproduction. Binary Fission the process by which prokaryotic cells reproduce 1. DNA is copied. 2. two daughter chromosomes become attached to different regions on the plasma membrane 3. The cell divides into two genetically identical daughter cells Plant Cells Animal Cells Cytoplasm: contains dissolved sustances, enzymes, and the cell organelles Nuclear Pore: allows for communication between the nucleus and the rest of the cell
Nuclear Membrane: a double-layered structure
Nucleus: contains most of the cell's DNA
Nucleolus: a dense solid structure involved in ribosome synthesis Ribosomes: small structures, either free in the cytoplasm or associated with the surface of the ER, that are responsible for making proteins Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
produces membrane phospholipids and cellular lipids, sex hormones
stores calcium ions needed for muscle contractions
transports liquid-based compounds
aids liver in release of glucose into bloodstream when necessary
detoxifies drugs in the liver
has ribosomes along exterior which are involved in protein synthesis
protein development and transport Golgi Apparatus:
stores, modifies, and packages proteins and other materials synthesized within the cell
the cis side receives products from the ER and then pass through the cisternae and then out the trans side where they then are sent to throughout the cell in small sacs called vesicles Genetics Mitochondria:
rod-shaped organelles disperced all throughout the cell that carry out respiration
have their own DNA allowing them some autonomy within the cell
smooth outside while the inner membrane is folded into cristae
the inner membrane is filled with semi-fluid substance called matrix
what is called the intermembrane space is the space between two membranes
produces and contains its own ribosomes Mendelian Genetics Theoretical Genetics Genes and Biotech Cellular Reproduction Process of Mitosis Cancer Genomes Vacuoles:
storage organelles (commonly contains potential food, metabolic wastes and toxins, and water)
many potential functions
enable cells to have a higher surface area to volume ratio Dihybrid Crosses Polygenic Inheritance DNA Forensics Electrophoresis Mitosis is the process of cellular reproduction — from a single parent cell, the synthesis of two ideally identical daughter cells. Centrosome:
consists of a pair of centrioles at the right angles to each other
involved in microtubule (provide structure and allow movement) assembly
located at one end of the cell closest to the nucleus exterior of cell includes a cell wall with a plasma membrane
chloroplasts are present in cytoplasm
large centrally located vacuoles
store carbohydrates as starch
because a rigid cell wall is present, plant cells have a fixed, often angular, shape exterior of cell contains only a plasma membrane
if present, vacuoles are small
store carbohydrates as glycogen
contain centrioles within a centrosome area
because there is no cell wall, animal cells are flexible and more likely to be a rounded shape hiiiii hydrogen and oxygen bonded by polar covalent bonds which results from unequal sharing of electrons
the polar covalent bonds result in a slight negative charge on the oxygen end and a slight positive charge on the hydrogen ends Properties of water and living organisms Thermal Properties:
high specific heat
high heat of vaporization Cohesive Properties:
water molecules are highly cohesive (due to polar covalent bond)
oppositely charged ends of two different water molecules will attract and as the temperatures drop the attractions lock forming ice crystals Solvent Properties:
an excellent solvent of other polar molecules Molecules ... Subcomponents i love you carbohydrate ... monosaccharides
lipids ... glycerol and fatty acids
proteins ... amino acids
nucleic acids ... nucleotides Organic or Inorganic? Organic molecules contain carbon but all carbon-containing molecules are not organic. Common molecules in biochemistry include glucose, ribose, a typical fatty acid, and a basic amino acid. "This and That is life" Glucose The Cell
Cycle The cell cycle describes the growth, death and division of cells. There are two periods of growth denoted as the Gap 1 (G1) phase and the Gap 2 (G2) phase. There are two periods of growth called the G1 phase The S phase is characterized by DNA
replication. Typically the shortest of these phases is mitosis in which the cell divides. Carbohydrates in... There is also a Gap 0 (G0) phase in which the cell no longer divides or prepares to
divide. The Restriction Point (R) is at the end of the G1 phase and is the point which it is determined whether the cell will move on to
the S phase and replicate its
DNA for cell division. Mitosis contains four distinct phases:
Telophase In addition, there is Interphase which is the cell's growth and DNA replication period and Cytokinesis which is the process in which the cytoplasm
of a single cell is divided. Anaphase Interphase are typically categorized as monosaccharides, disaccharides, or polysaccharides which contain one, two, or greater than two bonded sugars, respectively
glucose (a monosaccharide) is the most fundamental chemical fuel for cell respiration
lactose (a disaccharide) is the most prevalent sugar in milk
glycogen (a polysaccharide) stores glucose in liver and muscles Interphase is the periods of growth, DNA replication, and increases in the number of organelles. During this this phase the cell goes about its normal metabolic functions. Animals Also in this phase, there is the Restriction Point. fructose (a monosaccharide) is found in many fruits and makes them sweet
sucrose (a disaccharide) is often transported from leaves of plants to other locations in plants by vascular tissue
cellulose (a polysaccharide) is one of the primary components of plant cell walls Plants Role of Lipids triglyceride lipids when solid are called fats but are called oils in their liquid state
fats = energy storage
human body stores excess fat in adipose cells
lipids store approx. twice as much chemical energy as carbohydrates
thermal insulation (blubber)
phospholipids, a special type of lipid, make up the double layer of all cell membranes Prophase Hydrolysis & Condensation Reactions Prophase is the first phase in mitosis.
It is characterized by: Hydrolysis: the series of chemical reactions that take place when the food consumed by animals is digested into building blocks
in a hydrolysis reaction a molecule of water is 'split' Examples of hydrolysis reactions a polysaccharide to many monosaccharides starch + (many) water (many) glucose a disaccharide to two monosaccharides lactose + water glucose + galactose more on pg.53 of Higher Level Biology Textbook
Centrosomes move toward opposite poles in order to lengthen microtubules
Chromatin fibers forming chromosomes bybecoming more tightly coiled
Mitotic spindle fibers form
Disintegration of nuclear envelope and disappearance of nucleoli
The kinetochore (a central point) of each centromere attaches to spindle fibers Condensation reactions occur to re-form larger biochemically more important molecules and are often the reverse of hydrolysis reactions. Example: amino acids to a polypeptide (many) amino acids protein + (many) water Metaphase Because condensation uses a different type of enzyme, covalent bonds are created rather than being destroyed. Metaphase is the second phase in mitosis.
It is characterized by: Formation of the metaphase plate when chromosomes move to the middle (equator) of the cell
this movement is due to the action of the spindle fibers made of microtubules
Centromeres are on the plate
Centrosomes are at the opposite poles Anaphase is the third phase in mitosis and is typically the shortest.
It is characterized by: Identical chromatids of each chromosome are split
The chromatids are pulled to opposite poles of the cell due to the shortening of the spindle fibers Telophase Telophase is the final stage in mitosis.
It is characterized by: Chromosomes are at poles
Reformation of the nuclear membrane (envelope)
Chromosomes begin to unwind and elongate
Cell begins to elongate Each nucleotide has a phosphate group, deoxyribose (a sugar), and a molecule called a nitrogenous base.
For each base there is a complimentary base pair. Adenine (A) pairs with thymine (T) (requires two hydrogen bonds) and guanine (G) pairs with cytosine (C) (requires three hydrogen bonds). Cytokinesis Cytokinesis, following mitosis and after the cell has in effect replicated and the nucleus has reformed, is the process in which the cytoplasm divides. There is a difference between cytokinesis in plant and animal cells:
In animal cells, the cell pinches inward, forming cleavage furrows
In plant cells, the cell plate forms in the middle of the cell and moves outwards to the sides There are the four types of nitrogenous bases. A DNA strand is made of a unique sequence of nucleotides held together by covalent bonds which also contribute to DNA's double helix shape. enzymes = proteins = long chains of amino acids
often times their shape is their function
because each enzyme has an almost perfectly fitted substrate, the 3-D shape of each enzyme is one-of-a-kind
where the substrate and enzyme join is called the active site
there are two models that represent this model: the hand and glove and the lock and key Generally, a set of reactants in the presence of an enzyme will form products at a faster rate than without an enzyme.
Enzymes are not considered reactants so they are not used up in the reaction process thus allowing for enzymes to be used as catalysts many times. Enzymes are organic molecules that catalyze reactions Factors that affect enzyme-catalyzes reactions Temperature pH Levels Substrate Concentration A series of metabolic processes that take place within a cell in which biochemical energy is harvested from organic substance and stored as energy carriers for use in energy-requiring activities of the cell. Glucose, a six carbon sugar, is split into two molecules of a three carbon sugar.
In the process, two molecules of ATP, two molecules of pyruvic acid and two "high energy" electron carrying molecules of NADH are produced.
Glycolysis can occur with or without oxygen.
In the presence of oxygen, glycolysis is the first stage of cellular respiration. Without oxygen, glycolysis allows cells to make small amounts of ATP (fermentation). Glycolysis The Citric Acid Cycle The Citric Acid Cycle or Krebs Cycle begins after the two molecules of the three carbon sugar produced in glycolysis are converted to a slightly different compound (acetyl CoA).
Through a series of intermediate steps, several compounds capable of storing "high energy" electrons are produced along with two ATP molecules.
These compounds, known as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), are reduced in the process.
These reduced forms carry the "high energy" electrons to the next stage.
The Citric Acid Cycle occurs only when oxygen is present but it doesn't use oxygen directly. The Electron Transport Chain Electron Transport requires oxygen directly.
The electron transport "chain" is a series of electron carriers in the membrane of the mitochondria in eukaryotic cells.
Through a series of reactions, the "high energy" electrons are passed to oxygen.
In the process, a gradient is formed, and ultimately ATP is produced. Photosynthesis converts light energy into chemical energy in order to be useful to all non-photosynthetic organisms. Plants use chlorophyll to absorb light energy. Process Genomes Genomes Genomes Genomes Genomes Genomes Genomes Genomes Genomes Genomes Genomes <3 text or gchat 12:30? send something to my phone