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Transcript of The Incas
Around 1200 AD a pastoral tribe lead by Manco Capac settled in the Cuzco Valley high in the Andes Mountains of South America
The Incas, whose native language was Quechua, reached the height of their power between 1438 and 1533 AD under the rule of Pachacuti and his son Túpac
By constructing irrigation canals and carving terraces from steep mountainsides, they ensured that all arable land was put to use.
Since the Inca lived in a variety of extreme climates, farmers were specialized in growing certain crops that were most suited to a particular area.
First civilization to plant and harvest potatoes; other crops included corn, tomatoes, and peppers
Quinoa seeds were used to make cereal, flour, and soups
They also brought llamas into conquered lands for wool, meat, and also served as pack animals.
Son of the Sapa Inca, the Auqyi
Wife of Sapa Inca , the Coya
First generations of royal relatives
The Four Apu
The High Priest
Commander in Chief, the Apusquispay
Military Generals, the Apusquin Rantin
General people, Hatun Runa
Peoples of newly conquered lands, Mitamaes
The Inca Empire
Inca Territories and Expansion
The Inca empire, Tawantinsuyu, as they referred to it, was divided into four provinces, Chinchay Suyu (Northwest), Colla Suyu, (Southeast) Anti Suyu (Northeast), and Conti Suyu (Southwest), whose corners met at their capital, Cuzco, located in what is now modern day Peru
Fired mud bricks
Roughly shaped stones interspersed with mud mortar
Large, finely shaped stones coated with mud and clay finishing
Pillow-faced architecture (cut stone shaped) was typically used for temples, administrative structures and royal residences like Machu Picchu.
The Incas built a vast network of roads (the Inca Road) as well as suspension bridges and tunnels, throughout their empire, encompassing 15 distinct ecoregions.
The Villac-umu, or High Priest, could appoint or remove priests and controlled temples and shrines
The Sun god, Inti
The Creator, Viracocha
Ceque system, a system of shrines and ritual pathways radiating out from the capital city of Cuzco
Frequently held major festivals in honor of their deities
Human sacrifices were offered during sacred festivals or in times of disaster
Believed in an afterlife
An Apu, one of four high officials in charge of each province was appointed by the Sapa Inca. Below him were the local rulers - the Curacas - and even lower still the district headsmen - the Camayoc.
Fall of the Inca Empire
Inca men were armed with maces, bows and arrows, slings, darts, spears and wooden shields
Many Incas wore quilted cotton into battle
During battles, slingers would let fly a shower of rocks to soften the enemy lines.
Archers would release their shafts, darts would fly, and then the shock troops would hit in a torrent of screams and shouts meant to confuse and terrify the wavering opposition
Smallpox severely weakened the Incas
The civil war between brothers Huascar and Atahuallpa, the sons of (Huayna) Capac
In 1532 AD, Spanish Conquistadors, under the command of Francisco Pizarro, entered the Cajamarca Valley, killing many Incas and took Atahuallpa, the Sapa Inca hostage
The Sapa Inca offered Pizarro a huge ransom in exchange for his freedom, however, Pizarro took the Inca's riches instead, and, being the ruthlessly merciful Spaniard that he is, gave the Sapa Inca a choice...on how he involuntarily wished to die of course.
He could get baptized and then be strangled to death as a Christian, or be burned alive at the stake as a heathen. The Sapa Inca apparently chose the former and...thus ended the great Inca civilization.