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Transcript of World Geography
1. Place: physical features and cultural characteristics of a location.
2. Region: area of the earth’s surface with similar characteristics.
3. Movement: ways people, goods, and ideas move
4.Human-Enviroment Interaction: relationship between humans and their environment.
5. Location Absolute Location: exact place where a
geographic feature is found
Relative Location: place in relation
to other places Geography: the study of the distribution and interaction of physical and human features on Earth Unit 1
Part A Latitude: imaginary lines that run parallel to the equator Longitude:lines that mark positions in the east and west hemispheres Globe: 3D representation of the Earth Maps: 2D representations of Earth's Surface Cartographer: mapmaker Map Projection: way of drawing the Earth's surface that reduces distortion. Topographic Map: representation of natural and man-made features Chapter 2 Continents: landmasses above water on Earth, that fit together like a huge jigsaw puzzle Solar System: consists of the sun and nine known planets, as well as other celestial bodies that orbit the sun Solar System also contains comets, spheres covered with ice and dust that leave trails of vapor as they race through space. Asteroids, large chunks of rocky material, can also be found Asteroid belt can be found between the orbits of Jupiter and Mars Core: center of Earth made up of iron and nickel Mantle: layer that surrounds the Earth that contains most of Earth's mass Crust: outer layer Magma: molten rock that forms in the mantle and rises through the crust Atmosphere: layer of gases surrounding the Earth Lithosphere: solid rock portion of the Earth's surface; includes crust and uppermost mantle Hydrosphere: made up of water elements, which include oceans, seas, rivers, lakes, and water in the atmosphere Biosphere: part of the earth were the plants and animals live, made up of the atmosphere, the lithosphere, and the hydrosphere Continental Drift: idea formed in 1912 by german Alfred Wegener, presented that the earth was once a super continent that divided and slowly drifted apart over millions of years. He called this super continent Pangea from greek word meaning "all earth." Hydrolic Cycle: the continous circulation of water bewtweem the atmosphere, the oceans, and the earth. Drainage Basin: an area drained by a major river and its tributaries Ground Water: The water held in the pores of rock Water Table: the level at which the rock is saturated marks the rim. Geographic Information System (GIS) uses digital map information to create a databank, can produce specialized maps, lets geographers analyze different aspects to solve problems. Global Positioning System: series of satallites that rely on geographic information. Used by hikers, sailors, and drivers Scale: ratio between a unit of length on map and unit of distance on Earth. Physical Map: shows types of landforms and bodies of water in an area Political Map: shows man-made features on Earth's surface Thematic Map: focus on specfic information. Some show weather, natrual resources, or economic activities. Some types are qualitative maps, cartograms, and flow-line maps Functional Regions: organized by set of interactions and connections. Ex. a city and its suburbs. Perceptual Regions: people percieve characteristics of the region in the same way Formal Regions: region defined by limited number of similar characteristics. Ex. Latin America, Southwest Asia, and East Asia Prime Meridian: imaginary line dividing east and west halves * Greenwich Meredian Equator: imaginary line dividing north and south halves Hemisphere: each equal half of the globe Landmass: naturally formed feature Delta: fan-like landform; deposited sediment; by river that flows as it enters the ocean Glacier: large, mass of ice that moves Tectonic Plates/Forces: big moving shape that forms earth's crust Divergent Boundary: plates slide past each other Convergent Boundary: plates collide, causing one to dive under or ride up over the other. Transform Boundary: plates slide past each other Fault: fracture in crust, plates moves past each other Seismograph: measures size of waves caused by earthquakes Richter Scale: uses info from seismographs to determine earthquake strength Epicenter: where the earthquake begins Erosion: result of weathering, by wind, water, ice or gravity Glaciations: changing of landforms by slowly moving glaciers Humus: organic material Soil-Building: process where organic material becomes fertile soil Ecosystem: community of plants and animals Biomes: regional ecosystems Biomes are divided into forest, grassland, desert, and tundra Solstice: 2times a year;mark start of summer and winter Equinox: 2days a year; mark start of spring and autumn Tropic Cancer: farthest north Tropic of Capricorn: farthest south Weather: condition of atmosphere Climate: typical weather conditions Precipitation: falling water, rain, sleet, snow, hail Mechanical Weathering: natural process that breaks down rocks into smaller pieces Chemical Weathering: process that changes rock into new substance with minerals, water,and air Ring of Fire: zone around rim of pacific where majority of active volcanoues are found Tsunami: giant wave caused by earthquake Wind Systems: help distribute sun's heat Ocean Currents: impact temp. and amount of precipitation Hurricane: storm that forms over tropical waters Typhoon: tropical storm, western pacific Tornado: powerful column of air Blizzard: heavy snowstorm Drought: long period without rain Climate Region: particular weather conditions Tropical: regions with little variation in temp. Tundra: flat, treeless lands Permafrost: permanently frozen ground Culture: total knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors, passed on by members of a group Ethnic Minority: individual that identifies with minority population Religious Minority: individual that belongs to a minority relifgion