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Unit III: Slavery and Empire

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Michele Goostree

on 22 September 2016

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Transcript of Unit III: Slavery and Empire

Slavery and Empire
1441-1770

A Global Enterprise
Political and Economic Effects on Africa
One word: devastating
Daily Lives of Slaves
The Africanization of the South
Families and Communities
Social Structure of Slave Colonies
African Slavery Begins with Sugar
Slavery:
Foundation of the British Economy
3 Economic Contributions of Slavery:
The Politics of Mercantilism
Mercantilism (definition):
Economic system where government intervenes in the economy for the purpose of increasing national wealth.
Where are African slaves from?
Violence and Resistance
Threat and reality of violence
= institution of slavery
Italians est. 1st plantation in Mediterranean
Middle East-pop. decline after war/disease (no slaves)
Portuguese introduce African slaves
Dutch converted sugar from luxury to staple.
(sugar=$$$)
English and French take West Indian islands
Caribbean sugar centerpiece of Euro-imperialism
The African Slave Trade
African to African American
Slavery and the Economics of Empire
WEST AFRICA
10.5 million reach Americas
90% go to sugar colonies
>400,000 go to British North America
Shock of Enslavement
Held in pens
Divided by ethnic group
Inspected
Branded
Haunted by violence and cruelty
"Plan and Sections of a Slave Ship" on myhistorylab.com
Slave raids led to death and destruction
Europeans introduce guns for trade; raids increase
Long-term stagnation of economy
~new consumer goods ruin local manufacturing
~loss of 'human capital'
Perfect climate for European colonization (19th Century)
Dozens of ethnic groups enter colonies
languages
religions
customs
all of these are different!
"Creoles": country-born slaves
Two "Cultures" Meet
Two Cultures - Two Perspectives
Creoles
grew up under slavery
pick and choose cultural elements
Africans
heritage shaped identity
cultural observances were coping mechanism
Field hands, domestic servants (men and women)
Clothes provided by master (often inadequate in winter)
Living conditions varied by plantation
Large plantations led to resilient African American communities
Demanding work
Standard flogging: 50 lashes
Examples of Resistance:
malingering
mistreatment of animals
breaking of tools
Runaways (Why so many?)
More examples of Resistance:
Slave uprisings
Humanized the world of slavery
Kinship played role in solidifying African American societies
Slave Codes
Series of laws in Southern colonies
Institutionalized slavery
Denied basic civil rights to slaves.
marriage
children
gathering together
White and black Southerners came to share a common culture.
(Food and medicine!)
Mammy Figure
Slave mothers nursed white children
"Africanisms" passed into English language in the South
Continued through 1960s
Racial Stereotypes of Mammy in 20th Century
1. Generated enormous profits
~Slaves
~Plantation products
~Manufactured goods
~Expansion of merchant marine
~Improvement of harbors, canals
2. Caribbean slave colonies supply 69% raw cotton for British mills.
3. Slave trade created large export market.
"Colonies exist solely for the benefit of the mother country"
Parliament est. uniform currency, wages, ag, manufacturing, and tariffs
Gov't controlled shippers, merchants, manuf.
Wealthy-Elite Planters - 60%+ of the wealth
Bound through strategic marriage alliances & business deals
Typical Landowner
Minimum 20 slaves per plantation
Approx. half of all white adult males
Small planters and farmers; 1-4 slaves
Landless/Slaveless - Approx. 40% of population.
Large wealth gap between top and bottom groups
Mammy Sterotype (from Ethnic Notions by Marlon Riggs (1986). Women in Film. YouTube. Accessed 21 September 2016.
Tom and Jerry, Episode 1 "Puss Gets the Boot." Warner Brothers. 1940. YouTube. Accessed 21 September 2016.
"Stono Rebellion" from
Slavery and the Making of America
. PBS, 2004. YouTube. Accessed 22 September 2016.
"Nat Turner's Rebellion." History Channel. YouTube. Accessed 22 September 2016.
Full transcript