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Communicative English CeLe-UACJ
Transcript of Communicative English CeLe-UACJ
Principles and Program Bases for an Efficient EFL Teaching Practice
Code of Ethics
Aspect for an effective CLT praxis
Giving Feedback to ELLs
Administrative requirements for teachers
in the communicative program
Demonstrate understanding of what it means to be a professional in the TESOL field in terms of professional ethics and behavior.
Demonstrate understanding of appropriate relationships among teachers, students, and colleagues.
(Staehr & Snyder, 2014)
Including but not limited to: 1) Starting and finishing class on time; 2) Being respectful towards learners, administrators, colleagues, and other teachers; 3) Complying with administrative tasks; 4) Getting knowledgable on L2 practices; etc.
“There is much to be gained from preparing for a class session by meditatively contemplating what works well, previous mistakes made, the nature and needs of your students, and your goals for the session.”
“Whether the class session involves a lecture, discussion, or small group work, a teacher must be familiar with the day’s intellectual content. New teachers often work harder at this, whereas experienced teachers may need minimal review.”
(Preparing for a Class Session, Baron Perlman & Lee I. McCann)
The teacher is well-prepared and organized
The goals/objectives were apparent
Goals and objectives are to be presented in a nature in which “the instructor does not outline such goals or make such explanations overtly, but rather simply presents the information or problem to the student and allows the student to make their own conclusions and create their own conceptual structures and assimilate the information in the way that makes the most sense to them.”
(Does traditional or exploratory learning work better?, Bill Jenkins)
The teacher brought instructional aids or resources (printed or digital) to support the learning
“They can be linguistic, visual, auditory or kinesthetic, and they can be presented in print, through live performance or display, or on cassette, CD-ROM, DVD or the internet’ (Tomlinson, 2001, p.66). They can be instructional, experiential, elicitative or exploratory, in that they can inform learners about the language, they can provide experience of the language in use, they can stimulate language use or they can help learners to make discoveries about the language for themselves.”
(Developing Materials for Language Teaching (Second Edition), Brian Tomlinson)
The lesson was smooth, sequenced, and logical
“Regardless of the particular module (e.g., speaking, reading, pragmatics, grammar, etc.), instructors stress the importance of sequencing activities to form a logical progression. Each activity should logically build on what has been previously studied and lead naturally to a subsequent activity. Such a careful sequence helps to create pedagogical coherence that in turn helps students stay on task.”
(Lesson 3: Principles of Communicative Language Teaching, The Language Teacher)
“The way teachers talk to students, the manner in which they interact is crucial to both successful learning and teaching. […] It is important, therefore, that teachers directions relating to academic activity and behaviour are clear, precise and effective. It goes without saying that the best activity in the world will turn into a disappointing failure if students don’t understand the instructions.”
“Instructions should always be followed by demonstration. The best way to tell students how to do something is to actually do it yourself. For example with roleplay, take a more confident/gifted student and pair up with them and do a practice-run in front of the class. Talking and talking for minutes can be counter-productive and time-wasting when a quick demo can illustrate the activity not only linguistically but visually.”
(Practical Teaching Tips For Giving Instructions, Mohammed Rhalmi)
“To teach all students according to today’s standards, teachers need to understand subject matter deeply and flexibly so they can help students create useful cognitive maps, relate one idea to another, and address misconceptions. Teachers need to see how ideas connect across fields and to everyday life. This kind of understanding provides a foundation for pedagogical content knowledge that enables teachers to make ideas accessible to others.”
(Knowledge and teaching: Foundations of the new reform, Lee Shulman)
Here is some useful advice about handling questions from students:
a) Repeat the question or paraphrase it.
b) Doing so focuses the other students' attention on the question and lets the student who asked it check to see that you understood what he/she asked.
c) Redirect content-related questions to the whole class. This strategy encourages more student participation.
d) Answer a question with more questions. Additional probing questions will get students to focus on the part of the question that is most relevant to the answer.
e) Promote a discussion among students. In situations where there is considerable difference of opinion about the answer, this approach involves more than just one or two students in the process of generating an answer.
f) Don't be afraid to admit you don't know the answer.
g) Tell students that you will seek the answer and let them know.
h) Set aside certain times in the class when you deal only with basic questions. This strategy can help "smoke out" those students afraid to ask about basics or fundamentals they may have missed.
(Asking and Answering Questions, University of Nebraska)
“CLT is not all about speaking, so find a balance between the four skills (speaking, reading, writing, and listening). At the end of the day, these are just a means to an end. They are ways to put in practice, model, or mimic the communicative task we want our students o hopefully do on their own at the end of the session.”
(Setting straight what Communicative Language Teaching is all about, Tatiana Gomez)
Some would say that particularly foreign language learners need as much exposure as possible to L2 input during limited class time, the only time in their daily lives when they encounter the language. Others would say that if you only use English, you force your students to try to communicate with you in that language, giving them the opportunity to produce comprehensible output and negotiate meaning. I, of course, agree that English should be the primary vehicle of communication in the English classroom and that you should give students ample opportunities to process English receptively as well as to produce and negotiate meaning in the language. –Schweers
(Using L1 in the L2 classroom, Williams Schweers Jr.)
Mechanical practice refers to a controlled practice activity which students can successfully carry out without necessarily understanding the language they are using. Examples of this kind of activity would be repetition drills and substitution drills designed to practice use of particular grammatical or other items.
Meaningful practice refers to an activity where language control is still provided but where students are required to make meaningful choices when carrying out practice. For example, in order to practice the use of prepositions to describe locations of places, students might be given a street map with various buildings identified in different locations. They are also given a list of prepositions such as across from, on the corner of, near, on, next to. They then have to answer questions such as “Where is the book shop? Where is the café?” etc. The practice is now meaningful because they have to respond according to the location of places on the map.
Communicative practice refers to activities where practice in using language within a real communicative context is the focus, where real information is exchanged, and where the language used is not totally predictable. For example, students might have to draw a map of their neighborhood and answer questions about the location of different places, such as the nearest bus stop, the nearest
(Communicative Language Teaching Today, Jack C. Richards, 2006)
“Many proponents of Communicative Language Teaching have advocated the use of “authentic” “real-life” materials in the classroom. These might include language based realia, such as signs, magazines, advertisements, and newspapers, or graphic and visual sources around which communicative activities can be built.”
(Communicative Language Teaching: theories, lesson plan and application, Citra Abadi)
“Bottom-up approaches focus on the various components of the language and then fit these together in comprehending or producing language. Top-down approaches utilise knowledge of the larger picture, as it were, to assist in comprehending or using smaller elements.”
(Designing Tasks for the Communicative Classroom, David Nunan)
“One major feature of communicative language teaching is pair and group work. This type of work “is suggested to encourage students to use and practice functions and forms” (Richards & Rodgers, 2001, p.171). That helps students become more independent and accept responsibility.
“The teacher as an instructor can move about the classroom in order to monitor the strengths and weaknesses of the learners, as a basis for planning future learning activities.”
(Communicative Language Teaching: An Introduction, William Littlewood)
“Seating arrangements are critical to communication. In a traditional classroom, where all seats face the teacher, opportunities for student-to-student communication and indeed for teacher-to-individual-student communication are reduced. Alternative seating arrangements should be considered when teaching communicative language skills. Students should be able to see each other's faces when talking to one another; teachers should move about the classroom in order to encourage and provide input for students engaged in communicative tasks.”
(Handbook for Arabic Language Teaching Professionals in the 21st Century, Kassem M. Wahba, Zeinab A. Taha, Liz England)
“Metacognition, or thinking about one’s thinking, is key to facilitating lasting learning experiences and developing lifelong learners.
Metacognitive activities can guide students as they:
• Identify what they already know
• Articulate what they learned
• Communicate their knowledge, skills, and abilities to a specific audience
• Set goals and monitor their progress
• Evaluate and revise their own work
• Identify and implement effective learning strategies
• Transfer learning from one context to another “
(Activities for Metacognition, DePaul University Teaching Commons)
“Teachers should be aware of the kind of feedback they provide to their students, as it can greatly affect their language development, not just in their immediate classes, but perhaps in their future language studies. A single misled comment can cause them to close themselves to language learning and expression in general.”
(Direct and Indirect Corrective Feedback in Beginner EFL Students’ Speech, Javier Curiel, Eber Garcia, Victor Valencia)
“Respect is a two-way street, and students know when they’re not being respected. This is especially important if you’re teaching adult EFL students; although their language production is limited, they’re not children, and they shouldn’t be treated as such. Adults and children alike will give more respect to each other and to the teacher provided the teacher also respects them. Students know when a teacher genuinely cares about their success and will often work harder when they feel the respect and support from their teacher.”
(How to Build an Effective Classroom Environment in a Multilingual Classroom, Alisha Biler)
“An inductive approach (rule-discovery) starts with some examples from which a rule is inferred.
–Scott Thornbury, 1999
Most inductive learning presented in course books is guided or scaffolded. In other words, exercises and questions guide the learner to work out the grammar rule.”
(Inductive and deductive grammar teaching: what is it, and does it work?, Oxford University Press ELT)
Instructions were clear, concise, and students were able to carry them out
The teacher demonstrated understanding of the concepts covered and provided accurate information
The teacher answered questions carefully and satisfactorily
The lesson promoted the development of the 4 skills
The teacher keeps an English-only setting (among students at all times!)
The lesson included mechanical, meaningful and communicative practice (accuracy and fluency)
The teacher provides authentic input
The teacher applies top-down and/or bottom-up processes
The teacher prepares and lets students induce and discover grammar rules
The teacher promotes pair and/or group activities for S-to-S interaction rather than T-S interaction
The teacher moved around the class and monitored the students’ interactions
The sitting arrangement allows constant interaction and collaborative learning
The teacher closed the class with a metacognitive activity
The teacher provided appropriate corrective feedback
The teacher promotes a safe and respectful environment for the learning process (T-to-S, S-to-T, S-to-S)
1. Make real communication the focus of language learning.
2. Provide opportunities for learners to experiment and try out what they know.
3. Be tolerant of learners’ errors as they indicate that the learner is building up his or her communicative competence.
4. Provide opportunities for learners to develop both accuracy and fluency.
5. Link the different skills such as speaking, reading, and listening together, since they usually occur so in the real world.
6. Let students induce or discover grammar rules.
Assessing every day participation
Grading logs (carefully and throughly)*
Getting truthful scores from English Central
Assessing students with FOUR tests:
Meeting both FORM & FUNCTION!
At least an hour or two at the end of every evaluation period MUST be dedicated to give
Learners MUST be very aware from beginning to end where they are, what they have dominion over and what they need to work on.
Be mindful, attentive, sensitive and respectful when giving feedback: be honest, fair, and stay away from being RUDE!
Turning in lesson plans
Turning in log samples
Turning in tests
This is to be reported to your monitor!