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U.S. Hispanics tend to reject traditional gender roles withi

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megan taylor

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Transcript of U.S. Hispanics tend to reject traditional gender roles withi

Parental Involvement in School
Pre-colombian inhabitants (indigenous peoples) of Latin America are comprised of different ethnic groups such as Aztec, Mayan, & Incan.

Indigenous groups were forced to convert to Catholicism, learn Spanish, & give up their land.

U.S.-born and Immigrant Latino Cultural Scrapbook
U.S. Hispanics tend to reject traditional gender roles within marriage about as much as the general U.S. population
Pew Research Center. (2013). Between Two Worlds: How Young Latinos Come of Age in America. Retreived from: http://www.pewhispanic.org/2009/12/11/between-two-worlds-how-young-latinos-come-of-age-in-america/

53% of Hispanics believe abortion should be illegal, however there are differences among religious affiliations
Pew Research Center. (2013). Between Two Worlds: How Young Latinos Come of Age in America. Retreived from: http://www.pewhispanic.org/2009/12/11/between-two-worlds-how-young-latinos-come-of-age-in-america/

46% favor same-sex marriage overall, while 67% religiously unaffiliated are supporters
46% favor same-sex marriage overall, while 67% religiously unaffiliated are supporters
Work ethic
Pew Research Center. (2013). Between Two Worlds: How Young Latinos Come of Age in America. Retreived from: http://www.pewhispanic.org/2009/12/11/between-two-worlds-how-young-latinos-come-of-age-in-america/

75% of Hispanics say most people can get ahead if they work hard, compared to 58% of the general public.

Depiction of an Aztec society
After Christopher Columbus and other Europeans conquered the land, these indigenous groups mixed with Spanish conquistadors.

Spanish culture in Latin America influences religion (Catholicism), more individualistic values (for example the concept of owning land), the use of the Spanish language, and Western institutions such as education, politics, & religion


Fig 2. Retreived June 25, 2014 from Google: https://www.google.com/search?channel=sb&q=inca+princess%2C+spanish&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&tbm=isch&ei=HwSrU-PdKcWYyAS70YHACw#q=conquistadores%2C+indigenas&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&tbm=isch&facrc=_&imgdii=3m8xpfuawxPWQM%3A%3BJV0JeLanvjcltM%3B3m8xpfuawxPWQM%3A&imgrc=3m8xpfuawxPWQM%253A%3BFQFcGL_eAk71iM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.venamimundo.com%252FGrandesPersonajes%252FColon%252FColon-14.jpg%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.taringa.net%252Fposts%252Fimagenes%252F17228740%252FEl-ultimo-dia-de-libertad-de-los-Indigenas-y-America.html%3B1200%3B907

With the arrival of African slaves to Latin America, there was further racial, cultural, & linguistic mixing

African traits adapted into Latin culture include: mixing Catholicism with African religions (i.e. voodoo), certain foods, types of dance, music & clothing, and collectivism

Within the Latino community, Blacks are typically perceived as inferior by those of Spanish descent


Fig 3. Retreived June 25, 2014 from Google: https://www.google.com/search?channel=sb&q=inca+princess%2C+spanish&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&tbm=isch&ei=HwSrU-PdKcWYyAS70YHACw#q=afro+columbianos&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&tbm=isch&facrc=_&imgdii=_&imgrc=HJ8wbb7RYT_yHM%253A%3BuhkX5Ovub7worM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.arcoiris.com.co%252Fwp-content%252Fuploads%252F2012%252F08%252Fafros_siete.jpg%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.arcoiris.com.co%252F2012%252F08%252Fafrocolombianos-celebran-cumpleanos-de-bogota%252F%3B800%3B600
Diversity
Latinos are extremely diverse in terms of: -Race
-Ethnicity
-Language
-SES
-Education
-Religion, spirituality, & superstitions
-Collectivist versus individualistic values
U.S. Census Bureau & Pew Hispanic Center. (2012). Latinos in the U.S. demographics. Retreived from: http://vahcc.wordpress.com/2012/04/11/infographic-latinos-in-the-us-are-latinobrandingpower-com/
Hispanics are the largest and fastest growing minority group in the U.S. They comprise 16.4% of the U.S. population.
Pew Research Center. (2014). The U.S. Hispanic Population has Increased Six-fold since 1970. Retreived from: http://www.pewhispanic.org/
By 2050, Hispanics are projected to make up 30% of the U.S. population.
Pew Research Center. (2012). Retreived from: http://www.pewhispanic.org/
About 22% of U.S. Latinos are undocumented immigrants
Pew Research Center. (2013). Population Decline of Unauthorized Immigrants Stalls, May Have Reversed. Retreived from: http://www.pewhispanic.org/

More U.S. Hispanics self-identify by their country of origin or ancestral country of origin, than by the terms Hispanic/Latino or American

Pew Research Center. (2013). Three-fourths of Hispanics Say They Need a Community Leader. Retrieved from: http://www.pewhispanic.org/2012/06/27/the-10-largest-hispanic-origin-groups-characteristics-rankings-top-counties/

Pew Research Center. (2012). A Conversation About Identity. Retreieved from: http://www.pewhispanic.org/2012/05/30/a-conversation-about-identity-tell-us-your-story/prc_12-05-29_hispanic_identity2-3/
About half of U.S. Hispanics feel they do not fit the typical American mold.
Pew Research Center. (2012). A Conversation About Identity. Retreieved from: http://www.pewhispanic.org/2012/05/30/a-conversation-about-identity-tell-us-your-story/prc_12-05-29_hispanic_identity5-2/

Latinos represent many different races and ethnicities (indigenous, European, African, Asian). Many are multi-racial and combine these cultures into one. For example, a Latino of African descent may identify as Black and Latino, and combine elements of African, Spanish, and indigineous culture, along with their American culture.
Pew Research Center. (2012). A Conversation About Identity. Retreieved from: http://www.pewhispanic.org/2012/05/30/a-conversation-about-identity-tell-us-your-story/prc_12-05-29_hispanic_identity4/

Most Hispanics believe learning English is very important for their ability to succeed in the U.S., but keeping Spanish alive is also very important to maintaining their identity. About half of U.S.-born Hispanics are English-dominant.
Pew Research Center. (2012). A Conversation About Identity. Retreieved from: http://www.pewhispanic.org/2012/05/30/a-conversation-about-identity-tell-us-your-story/prc_12-05-29_hispanic_identity6-2/

The largest U.S. Latino group is of Mexican origin (about 65%)
Pew Research Center. (2010). Retreived from: http://www.pewhispanic.org/2013/06/19/diverse-origins-the-nations-14-largest-hispanic-origin-groups/
There are many differences between U.S. Latino groups.
“U.S. Hispanics of Mexican origin have the lowest median age, at 25 years, while Hispanics of Cuban origin have the highest median age, at 40 years.”

“ Colombians are the most likely to have a college degree (32%) while Salvadorans are the least likely (7%).”

“ Ecuadorians have the highest annual median household income ($50,000) while Dominicans have the lowest ($34,000).”

“Half of Hondurans do not have health insurance—the highest share among Hispanic origin groups. By contrast, just 15% of Puerto Ricans do not have health insurance.”

About half of the people in this population show no preference for either terms, “Hispanic” or “Latino”. Different meanings can be attached to each term, so counselors should simply ask their preference.
Pew Research Center. (2012). The 10 Largest Hispanic Origin Groups: Characteristics, Rankings, Top Counties. Retreieved from: http://www.pewhispanic.org/2012/06/27/the-10-largest-hispanic-origin-groups-characteristics-rankings-top-counties/
There are more U.S-born Hispanics than foreign-born in the U.S, therefore many are bicultural and bilingual when growing up with foreign-born parents or grandparents.
Pew Research Center. (2013). Statistical Portrait of Hispanics in the United States, 2011. Retreived from: http://www.pewhispanic.org/
1 out of 4 public school students are Hispanic
Pew Research Center. (2012). Retreived from: http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2013/09/04/hispanic-college-enrollment-rate-surpasses-whites-for-the-first-time/

U.S.-born Hispanics typically achieve higher academic success than their foreign-born parents
Pew Research Center. (2013). Hispanic High School Graduates Pass Whites in Rate of College Enrollment. Retreived from: http://www.pewhispanic.org/

Differences between generations
Pew Research Center. (2012). http://www.pewhispanic.org/2009/12/11/between-two-worlds-how-young-latinos-come-of-age-in-america/

Barriers for Young Latinos
Pew Research Center.(2012). http://www.pewhispanic.org/2009/12/11/between-two-worlds-how-young-latinos-come-of-age-in-america/

Optimism for the future generation
Pew Research Center. (2012). Hispanics Say They Have the Worst of a Bad Economy. Retreived from: http://www.pewhispanic.org/2012/01/26/hispanics-say-they-have-the-worst-of-a-bad-economy/

Foreign versus native born
Pew Research Center. (2012). http://www.pewhispanic.org/2009/12/11/between-two-worlds-how-young-latinos-come-of-age-in-america/
Some Latinos have a long history of generations in the U.S., while some are first or second generation.
Latin Americans immigrate for different reasons:
-Political refuge
-Better economic & educational opportunities
-Reuniting with family
Immigration to the U.S.
Parental Involvement in School: Barriers
-working several jobs
-trouble communicating in English/ school using English-only communication
-adjusting to U.S. school system
-68% of Latino children have parents with a high school diploma or less/lack of confidence in ability to assist in child’s education
-fear of immigration status being revealed (when applicable)
-lack of transportation

-parents discuss educational plans at home, give encouragement, provide large family network of support
These barriers can make Latino parents seem uninvolved or uninterested in child’s education, but this is not true.
Common Latino family values:
-respeto: holding elders and professionals in high regard
-familismo: importance of immediate and extended family ties
-education: importance of education to advance SES

1. Improving parental efficacy: Parents need to feel confident in their abilities to be involved. Parents of high-achieving students have higher levels of efficacy than lower-achieving.
4. Flexibility: Offer evening & weekend meeting times & community-based meeting locations, home visits, informal communication (i.e. during pick-up/drop-off), bilingual communication, etc.
2. Invitation to participate by teachers, counselors, & administrators: Parents should believe that the school and child expect and want them to participate. School counselors can model study skills & practice role plays for parent-teacher conferences.
3. Parent Role Construction: Parents with low levels of education often do not have experience as educational advocate. Counselors can inquire how parents were involved in country of origin to understand differences in roles & education systems between countries. Counselor awareness can help to create other avenues of involvement, for example a Latino Parent Advisory Council, Latino Family Night, promoting/celebrating Latino cultural awareness school-wide, etc
Gonzalez, L. M., Borders, L., Hines, E. M., Villalba, J. A., & Henderson, A. (2013). Parental involvement in children's education: Considerations for school counselors working with Latino immigrant families. Professional School Counseling, 16(3), 185-193.
Barriers in the Art Community
"The 2012 Whitney Biennial featured exactly zero latino artists. How can that be a survey of 'American Art'? It seems like the absence of Latino artists is normal, not newsworthy, but the organizing of our presence causes questions about our existence."


5. Kennicott, P. (2013, November 3). Critic vs. artist: What. Washington Post. Retrieved June 28, 2014, from http://www.washingtonpost.com/entertainment/museums/critic-vs-artist-what-latino-art-means/2013/11/03/efd53cfe-44bc-11e3-bf0c-cebf37c6f484_story.html
Language Barriers for Students
Non-English-speaking Hispanic students are three or four times more likely than Hispanics who speak English to drop out of school before graduation.

3. Wilcox, K. (2010). When language bars Latino kids success. McClatchy- Tribune business news. Sep 28.
Historical Roots
Cultural Characteristics
Spirituality and Collectivism are a very important characteristic of Latino Culture.
Barriers to seeking mental health services: In the Latino community
The high need for linguistically and culturally appropriate mental health services for Latinos is well documented.

Latinos are about half as likely to seek MHS as Whites.

The level of under-utilization appears to be rooted in the lack of mental health clinicians who can provide linguistically and culturally appropriate services

Barriers that prevent Latinos from utilizing MHS
Misunderstanding of
mental health counseling,
fear of invasion of privacy,
embarrassment, denial,
or pride.

1. Rastogi, M. & Wieling, E. (2012). Barriers to seeking mental health services in the Latino/A community”: A qualitative analysis. Journal of systemic therapies. 31(4), 1-17.
Latinos seek MHS, family might be stigmatized
and family members would likely feel ashamed, fear
social criticism, and afraid
of what people would
think of them.

"Seeing a psychologist means you are crazy"
"Others try to convince you that you are exaggerating the problem."
They may turn to a family member instead of seeking professional services since they value "family closeness".

Legal concern
Some Latinos fear their stay in the U.S. would be jepardized and they would be "deported" if they sought MHS.

Difficulties obtaining services
The cost of MHS and lack of medical insurance were seen as the major reason that Latinos did not seek MHS.

Solutions to improving access and reducing barriers to Mental Health Counseling
-Increasing awareness and information
-Display MHS information in public places.
-Ads on the radio and on television about -resources to let people know that there is help.
-The community leaders such as priests should also distribute information about MHS.
Solutions to improving access and reducing barriers to MHS
Improving access to mental health
-Providing affordable MHS.
-Home visits or locating MHS within the clients' communities.
-School based social workers or counselors offering services to the entire community.
-Offer services to Latinos regardless of their immigration status

Latino Education: Closing the Gap
Educational barriers, improving student success, school counselor, teacher, parent, community involvement
Prince George's Community Television (April 4, 2012). Latino Education- Closing the Gap. Retrieved from:
"Research on this topic has generally found that limited English proficient, Spanish-dominant students who are taught to read Spanish and then transitioned to English ultimately become better readers in English than do students taught to read only in English (Garcia, 1991; Willig, 1985; Wong-Fillmore & Valdez, 1986)."
Slavin, R. E., & Madden, N. A. (n.d.). Effects of Success for All on the Achievement of English Language Learners. Effects of Success for All on the Achievement of English Language Learners. Retrieved June 29, 2014, from http://www.successforall.org/SuccessForAll/
The Mexican American Political Association
"(MAPA) was organized by 150 volunteer delegates at Fresno in April 1960[1] as a means to elect Mexican American candidates to public office. Edward R. Roybal, later elected to the United States House of Representatives, served as its first chair/president. Throughout the 1960s, MAPA was active in the Civil Rights Movement and the Chicano political movement. MAPA members also aided Cesar Chavez and the United Farm Workers in political and labor negotiations. They also realized their first electoral victories that year. During the 1970s, MAPA saw more successful campaigns by Mexican American candidates, but also won important appointments in the administration of California Governor Jerry Brown. The 1980s were characterized by continued efforts to elect Mexican American candidates, and in the 1990s MAPA was a co-filer of the suit against California Proposition 187 (1994)."
Brown vs. BOE 1954 &
Bilingual Education Act 1968
“Culture, language and identity are closely connected in the schooling and academic development of a growing number of children in American schools”
Brown vs. Board of Education 1954 and Bilingual Education Act 1968 both aimed to provide equal education opportunities for all students. The schools are ill prepared in training and resources for the rapid increase of Latino students that come into the schools."

Cortina, Regina. Bridging Language Barriers. School Business Affairs, February 2006, Volume 72, No. 2 (21–23).
Latino American Political Association of San Diego
"LAPASD is officially a non-partisan organization and welcomes members of any political affiliation. Currently, members partake in various parties including Democrat, Republican, Green Peace and Freedom as well as others. The association is composed of members of Mexican, Chicano, Latino and Meso-Native American Heritage. Although the majority of members are Democrats as it is the case with most Latinos in the United States, all members understand the common issues that must be tackled to ensure a healthy and strong future for all Latinos in the Nation."
Blank Title. (n.d.). Mexican American Political Association. Retrieved June 29, 2014, from http://www.mapa-ca.org
Latino American Political Association LAPA. (n.d.). Latino American Political Association LAPA. Retrieved June 29, 2014, from http://www.lapasd.com/
1. Rastogi, M. & Wieling, E. (2012). Barriers to seeking mental health services in the Latino/A community”: A qualitative analysis. Journal of systemic therapies. 31(4), 1-17.
2. Rolon, C. A. (2005). Helping Latino students learn. The education digest. 71(4), 31-34.
Validate the family’s culture and build trust and confidence in the school system by:
-Providing materials and communication in Spanish
-providing translators and bilingual counselors
-help families and students navigate school system
-educate school staff about educational barriers of Hispanic population and their diverse cultures
Smith-Adcock, S., Daniels, M., Lee, S., Villalba, J., & Indelicato, N. (2006). Culturally Responsive School Counseling for Hispanic/Latino Students and Families: The Need for Bilingual School Counselors. Professional School Counseling, 10(1), 92-101.
School counselors should:
-take into consideration importance of family for decision-making process (for example where to apply to college)
-guide students and families step-by-step through school system (in Spanish if necessary), such as college process or how to prepare for standardized tests
-Include, acknowledge, and advocate for Hispanic families

Marsico, M., & Getch, Y. Q. (2009). Transitioning Hispanic senior's from high school to college. Professional School Counseling, 12(6), 458-462. doi:10.5330/PSC.n.2010-12.458
Counseling Approach:
-Hispanic students tend to:
-be action-oriented
-prefer short-term goals where results are easily seen
-expect some advice from their counselor
-focus on the present
-prefer structured sessions
-prefer concrete and direct communication in counseling
-build trust in counselors who self-disclose when appropriate
-Brief counseling works best for Hispanic students, especially in groups because they tend to value their ties to peers.
Marsico, M., & Getch, Y. Q. (2009). Transitioning Hispanic senior's from high school to college. Professional School Counseling, 12(6), 458-462. doi:10.5330/PSC.n.2010-12.458
Group counseling helps Hispanic students:
-problem-solve
-increase personal awareness
-strengthen English language skills if applicable
-share a sense of cultural pride with peers

Family counseling considerations:
-Hispanics highly value ties with nuclear and extended family; the more family members involved in counseling, the more likely the intervention will be successful
-Family members are expected to sacrifice their own needs for the family, for example getting a job after high school instead of going to college to financially support the family.
-An individual’s issue is seen as the whole family’s issue.
-Children are expected to be respectful and obedient to older family members and figures of authority.
-Families are based on a hierarchal and patriarchal structure.

Baruth, L. G., & Manning, M. (1992). Understanding and counseling Hispanic American children. Elementary School Guidance & Counseling, 27(2), 113-122.
Baruth, L. G., & Manning, M. (1992). Understanding and counseling Hispanic American children. Elementary School Guidance & Counseling, 27(2), 113-122.
SB 1070
Artists advocate for Latino/Hispanic Americans and Immigrants against SB 1070
-Support Our Law Enforcement and Safe Neighborhoods Act (introduced as Arizona Senate Bill 1070 and thus often referred to simply as Arizona SB 1070)

"U.S. federal law requires all aliens over the age of 14 who remain in the United States for longer than 30 days[5] to register with the U.S. government,[6] and to have registration documents in their possession at all times; violation of this requirement is a federal misdemeanor crime.[7] The Arizona Act additionally made it a state misdemeanor crime for an alien to be in Arizona without carrying the required documents,[8] required that state law enforcement officers attempt to determine an individual's immigration status during a "lawful stop, detention or arrest", or during a "lawful contact" not specific to any activity[9] when there is reasonable suspicion that the individual is an illegal immigrant.[10][11] The law barred state or local officials or agencies from restricting enforcement of federal immigration laws,[9] and imposed penalties on those sheltering, hiring and transporting unregistered aliens.[12] The paragraph on intent in the legislation says it embodies an "attrition through enforcement" doctrine.[13][14]"

Ernesto Yerena and Sheperd Fairy
César Maxit
Melanie Cervantes
Chandra L. Narcia
Arizona SB 1070. (2014, June 28). Wikipedia. Retrieved June 28, 2014, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arizona_SB_1070
Barriers
Solutions &
Best Practices
Parental Involvement in School
Parental Involvement in School
Parental Involvement in School
Parental Involvement in School
Parental Involvement in School
Social Stigma
Americas Society/ Council of The Americas
Immigration and Integration Initiative
"The Immigration and Integration Initiative works with the business community, public sector, and civil society in new gateway cities and across the United States to advance the integration of immigrants and promote positive dialogue around the economic contributions of immigrants in the United States."
Immigration and Integration Initiative | AS/COA. (n.d.). Immigration and Integration Initiative | AS/COA. Retrieved June 29, 2014, from http://www.as-coa.org/immigration-and-integration-initiative
http://www.as-coa.org/articles/get-facts-five-ways-immigrants-drive-essential-economy
Dietary Differences
"The abrupt transition for immigrants creates sudden changes and lifestyle shifts. In the United States, a more vehicle-dependent and sedentary, yet hectic, American lifestyle is common. Therefore, first-generation families with children particularly need support given the risk that immigration and acculturation appears to have on adolescent children’s diet and weight."
Cluskey, M., Petersen, R., & Wong, S. S. (n.d.). Conclusion. Dietary Adaptation among Latino Immigrants: Impressions from Mothers of Adolescents. Retrieved June 29, 2014, from http://ncsu.edu/ffci/publications/2013/v18-n3-2013-winter/chuskey-peterson-wong.php
Latin American Foods
Recipes and techniques vary from region to region, but there are popular dishes on almost every Latin American dinner table — tamales, arroz con pollo, plantanos and salsas.

Read more at: http://www.foodnetwork.com/recipes/articles/latin-american-cooking.html?oc=linkback
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