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Transcript of Pesticides
ENC 1102 PESTICIDES What Is A Pesticide? A general term to describe chemical substances used to destroy or control pest organisms, including herbicides, insecticides, algicides, and fungicides. Pronunciation: \pes-t-sd\
Function: noun A Swiss chemist named Paul Muller developed the chemical DDT in the early 1940’s in order to control lice and mosquito larvae during World War II
Was thought to have been an agricultural breakthrough with no known side effects!
Rachel Carson's discoveries:
"In Nebraska, mortality from leukemia was higher among farmers than any other work group."
"In Wisconsin farmers who worked with large amounts of herbicides and insecticides had an increased risk of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma."
"Pregnant women who lived in agricultural regions of California have a greater than average change of giving birth to babies with severe birth defects." HISTORY Early Pesticide Usage Disadvantages DISADVANTAGES OUTWEIGH ADVANTAGES! Effects on animals Pesticides kill benefical species
According to a recent study conducted by the USDA, pesticides are alleged to have killed more than 67 million birds and six to fourteen million fish, and harm about one of every five endangered and/or threatened species in the United States (Miller 523). Dangers to human health Chronic health problems linked to pesticides include
Adverse neurological effects
Shortened attention span
Reproductive problems including miscarriages,
Reduced infant development
World Health Organization and the UNEP estimates that pesticides cause 20,000-40,000 deaths per year Pesticides Today What YOU can do Buy Organic Food! As consumer demand increase, prices will decrease.
Protest, write letters to congress.
Educate and tell your friends!
RAISE AWARENESS!! My plan of action Better profit
for farmers Save lives Increase food
solution Resistance The continual application of a pesticide will not remain effective in killing a pest because it will inevitably develops a genetic resistance to the chemicals.
Today pests that were once major threats to human health and agriculture but were brought under control by pesticides are now on the rebound (Bellinger).”
this can phenomenon can rapidly effect entire populations The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), states that only 0.1-0.2% applied to the crops by aerial or ground spraying actually reaches the target pests and the rest ends up in the air, surface water, groundwater, bottom sediments, food, humans, and wildlife
This means 98-99% of the pesticided sprayed contaminates our environment and ultimately impacts ones health!!!! Pesticides today are regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Federal Government, in cooperation with the States, claims that today pesticides are carefully regulated and heavily tested to ensure that they do not inflict unreasonable risks to human health or the environment (epa.gov).
The approved list includes: Insecticides (chemicals that kill insects by blocking reproduction, clogging their airways, or disrupting their nervous system), herbicides (chemicals that kill weeds by disrupting their metabolism and growth), fungicides (fungus killers), and rodenticides (rat and mouse killer). Biotechnology seeds enable researchers to take beneficial genes from selected organisms and introduce them into plants
According to a study published in 2008 in an agricultural journal, called AgBioForum, "Countries where farmers plant biotech soy, corn, cotton or canola, pesticide use has fallen by 286 million kg, or 7.9 percent." www.monsanto.com “rotating the types of crops planted in a field each year,
adjusting planting times so major insect pests either starve
or get eaten by their natural predators, and growing crops in
areas where their major pests do not exist” (Miller 528). Organic farmers do not use pesticides!
According to a published study in the journal, Food Additives and Contaminates, “The USDA data showed that 73 percent of conventionally grown foods had at least one pesticide residue, while only 23 percent of organically grown samples of the same crops had any residues (Food Additives and Contaminates).” Biological pest control involves importing natural
predators, parasites, and disease causing bacteria and viruses
to help regulate pest populations