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History of the Atom
Transcript of History of the Atom
History of the Atom
By: Aina Nomura, Colin Quinn, Jeremy Haigler
Robert A. Millikan
1.All matter consists of invisible particles called atoms.
2. Atoms are indestructible.
3. Atoms are solid but invisible.
4. Atoms are homogenous.
5. Atoms differ in size, shape, mass, position, and arrangement.
->Solids are made of small, pointy atoms.
->Liquids are made of large, round atoms.
->Oils are made of very fine, small atoms that can easily slip past each other.
-Born in Abdera, Greece in 460 BC, and died in 370 BC.
-This is Democritus Atomic Model. --->
It was just a round sphere that had no protons, electrons, or neutrons.
-Atomic Theory: “The universe is composed of two elements: the atoms and the void in which they exist and move.”
-Born in Stagira, Greece in 384 BC, and died in 322 BC.
-Did not believe in the atomic theory, but instead thought that everything was made of small amounts of the four elements (earth, fire, water, and air).
-Born in 1868, Morrison,IL and died in 1953 in San Marino,CA
-Although his theory was wrong, most people followed this belief causing Democritus' theory to be overlooked.
-Was a teacher in physics for two years. Then later got his mastership in physics and his Ph.D.
-Born in Cumberland, England in 1766, and died in 1844.
-Proposed that all matter is composed of atoms - the indivisible and indestructible building blocks of matter. He stated that though atoms of an element were identical, different elements varying atom sizes and masses.
-Compounds are combinations of atoms in ratios
-Chemical reactions rearranged reacting atoms
-Experimented on mixtures of gases to determine properties on mixtures as a whole (evaporated water exists in air as an independent gas).
-Discovered how to separate different atoms and molecules by using positive rays.
-Atoms made of positive cores and negatively charged particles.
-Plum Pudding Model
-Millikan created an oil drop experiment to determine the mass of an electron and positively charged atoms.
-Cathode Ray experiments proved that rays were made up of charged particles with a negative charge.
-Built a system where electric plates produced a positive anode and a negative cathode to deflect the rays.
-Born in 1871, Brightwater, New Zealand. Died in 1937 in Cambridge, United Kingdom.
Rutherford said that all of the positive charge and all of the mass of the atom occupied a small volume at the center of the atom. Most of the volume of the atom was empty space occupied by the electrons.
Rutherford was the first person to describe the hydrogen nucleus as a proton.
-Born in Manchester, UK in 1856, and died in 1940
-Born August 12, 1887, Vienna, Austria
-Neils was born in 1885, Copenhagen, Denmark. He died in 1962, Copenhagen, Denmark.
-Died January 4, 1961
-formulated the wave equation that accurately gave the energy levels of atoms in 1926
-received Nobel Prize in Physics in 1933
-Quantum mechanical model: predicts the odds of where an electron may be.
-quantum model is based off of the Bohr model
-He proposed that energy levels of electrons are discrete and that the electrons revolve in stable orbits around the atomic nucleus but can jump from one energy level to another.
-He founded the Institute of Theoretical Physics at the University of Copenhagen, now known as the Niels Bohr Institute, which opened in 1920.
-February 4, 1896- March 31, 1997
-helped introduce method of using molecular orbitals to determine the electronic structure of molecules and chemical bond formation aka Hund-Mulliken Theory
-discovered and wrote about the principle of quantum tunneling in 1927
-April 25 , 1990- December 15, 1958
-received Nobel Prize in Physics
-formulated 'Pauli exclusion principle' which stated that no two electrons could exist in the same quantum state, identified by four quantum numbers
-idea of spin originated with Ralph Kronig.