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Integumentary System - Ch6

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Sarah Rodney

on 12 May 2016

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Transcript of Integumentary System - Ch6

Integumentary System - Ch6
* Black, brown, or has a yellow tint –
depending on racial origin
* The more melanin, the darker the skin
* Caucasians don’t have much melanin
in their melanocytes.
* Freckles = patches of melanin
* Albinism = no melanin


Ridges in stratum germinativum that arise from dermis
Create permanent ridges in fingers, palms and soles of feet
These “friction ridges” help with grip
Cause “fingerprints”

Skin!= Integument = Cutaneous Membrane
7 Functions:
1. Protective covering
2. Regulates body temperature
3. Manufactures Vitamin D
4. Sensory function
5. Temporary storage of fat,glucose, water and salts
6. Screens out harmful ultraviolet
7. Absorbs certain drugs
Structure of the Skin
2 basic layers
• Outermost covering
• Stratified squamous Epithelial cells
• Avascular
• True skin
• Connective tissue
• Vascular

2 (of 3) epidermal layers are:
• Stratum Corneum
- Outermost layer
- In cells, cytoplasm replaced by KERATIN making them waterproof.
- Flat and scale-like cells that flake off
-First line of defense against surface bacteria
-Thickest ❑ palms of hands, soles of feet
• Stratum Germinativum
-Innermost epidermal layer
-Reproductive layer – cells form and push their way up, become keratinized, and replace the top layer
-Contains MELANOCYTES – cells that contain a pigment = MELANIN

Eumelanin - black color
Pheomalnin - reddish-yellow
Thicker inner layer that contains:

Connective tissue
Blood vessels
Nerve endings
Hair follicles
Oil and sweat glands
Fat cells

More skin stuff!
Nerve Receptors in Dermis
• Sensory nerves – heat, cold, touch, pain and pressure
• Touch receptors close to the surface
• Pressure receptors are deeper

Subcutaneous Layer
• Lies under the dermis (not really part of integumentary system)
• Made up of loose connective tissue
• Contains half of the body’s stored fat

Appendages of skin
• Almost everywhere on the body
• Length, thickness, type and color varies
Outer layer = CORTEX
Inner layer = MEDULLA
Part under the skin = ROOT
Part outside the skin = SHAFT
FOLLICLE = pocket in epidermis, hair inside
PAPILLA = tuft of tissue in root, contains capillaries
ARRECTOR PILI MUSCLE = smooth muscle attached to follicle.
• Nail is formed in the nail bed or MATRIX
• Epidermal cells fused together and fill with keratin

Skin Glands
• Perspiration is 99% water

• Distributed over the entire skin surface
• Large numbers under the arms, palms of hands, soles of feet and forehead
• Duct extends to form a pore in the skin,
perspiration excreted through the pores
• May be activated by heat, pain, fever and nervousness
• Average fluid loss is 500 ml per day

• Secret oil (SEBUM) that protects and lubricates the skin

Disorders and Related Terminology
1. acne
2. albinism
3. alopecia
4. athlete’s foot
5. basal cell carcinoma
6. boils (carbuncles)
7. first degree burn
8. second degree burn
9. third degree burn
10. dermatitis
11. eczema
12. excoriation
13. genital herpes
14. herpes simplex I (cold sores)
15. impetigo

16. melanoma
17. pruritis
18. psoriasis
19. pustule
20. ringworm
21. rule of nines
22. scabies
23. shingles (herpes zoster)
24. squamous cell carcinoma
25. tumor
26. ulcer (superficial and decubitus)
27. urticaria (hives)
28. vesicle
29. warts (verrucae)

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Skin and Microorganisms
¨ Intact skin = best protection against pathogens, toxins and water loss
¨ Skin generally too dry for microbial growth – they do grow in moist areas
¨ Most skin bacteria associated with hair follicles or sweat glands
¨ Underarm perspiration odor caused by bacteria and perspiration
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