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The Circles of Life

A collection and overview of different natural cycles

Markolf von Ketelhodt

on 29 October 2012

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Transcript of The Circles of Life

pressure gradiation force Sanne, Ariadne, Chiara, Larissa, Fabian & Marki Energy Geo-Chemical
Cycles Ecology Nitrogen Cycle Phosphorous Cycle Sulfur Cycle Atmosphere
N2 N2O Ammonium NH4+ Fixation by bacteria Nitrites NO2- Nitrates
NO3- Atmospheric fixation Dentrifying bacteria Plants Used by Animals Eaten by Mineralization Mineralization Nitrifying bacteria Nitrifying bacteria Chemical fixation
Photolysis Chemical fixation, fertilizers Spaceship Earth Ecology H N Hydrosphere Cryosphere Land surface Biosphere Thermosphere Mesophere Stratosphere Troposphere Solar radiation -
max. 1100 W/m^2 in West/ Norther Europe Photosynhesis
CO2 + H20 + E --> C6H12O6 + O2 Sugars available for plants an animals Resiraton in animals; their energy = ATP Restproducts: CO2 and H2O Restprodcts into atmosphere: used agai by plants undernfluenceof solar radiatn Lithosphere Biosphere Hydrosphere Mining Fertilizers Animal waste Decomposition Marine sediments Water hydrology Atmosphere Biosphere Lithosphere Hydrosphere Vulcano eruption Acid rain Acid rain Bacterial reduction Bacterial reduction DSM Infiltration Industry Fertilizers Water-Hydrology Socio-economic Colors arrows:
Ecology = Green
Socio-Economic = Red
Hydrological cycle: Blue
Energy = Grey
Biochemical = White with black letters
Climate = White with purple letters Fabian's bin Climate Plants and phytoplankton photosynthesize and animals and bactria decay and respire. Temperature on bacterial decay Energy Socio-Economic Infiltration and rain Influences marine sediments Socio-Economic Mining, fertilizers, wastewater treatment, phosphate detergents. Climate Temperature influences decomposition Ecology Animal waste and decomposition Ecology Plants need nitrogen, too much leads to eutrophication Fertilizers, nitrogen fixating crops and energy use Energy Airborne nitrogen leads to ground-level ozone, photochemcical smog and acid rain. Soil PH has a large
impact on take in. Too much can lead to eutrphication. Climate greenhouse effect Altitude Topography Latitude ocean currents wind patterns thermohaline circulation High pressure creates moves water to Low pressure creats Waves Corealis force influences temperature humidity wind methane creates biomes enables hydrology Body Terrestrial Ecology Water hydrology Climate Climate Higher temperature leads to more fixation by bacteria and in the atmosphere. Limestone
Mineral compounds Respiration & decay Chemical Weathering C6H12O6 Burial shells Biosphere Atmosphere Lithosphere Hydrosphere Photosynthesis Respiration Human emissions Decomposition Burial organic matter Photosynthesis Respiration Decomposition Burial shells Vulcanic eruptions Photolysis 2N2O 2H2O O2 C C C O2 C Photosynthesis O2 C CO2 Photosynthesis O2 CO2 CaCO3 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 Chemical Weathering CO2 N H Minerals Minerals Carbon and Oxygen Cycle CaCO3 Clays, Soluble ions Ecology Acid rain SO2 Wet deposition Dry deposition H2SO4 SO4 H2S (CH3)2S H2SO4 Weathering Sedimentary rock formation Weathering Needed by plants, too much leads to soilacidification Industry metal smelting Energy Producers Heat Consumers Heat Decomposers Heat Inorganic Nutrient
Pool Trophic Levels Socio-Economic
Relationships Natural Resources Society Natural Energy Cycle Wind energy Hydro Energy Population Households Transportation Values & Morals Solar Energy Biofuels Photovoltaics Heating/ cooling Problem: relative inefficiency Benefit: storage Phtososynthesis Problem: food/energy competition Benefit: controllable, constant amount Electricity generation Problem: expenses and production Benefit: efficient Collectors Tidal
Height difference (waterfalls)
Problem: cost - yield ratio
Benefit: constant source Generates electricity
Break-even point is large (economically and physically)
Benefit: durable
Problem: not constant. --> causes inefficiency in other energy generators pressure precipitation aerosols ozone determines dew fog influences smog greenhouse gases increases modifies cloud formation increasing increases Milankovitch cycles thermohaline circulation C02 02 C02 02 Photosynthesis Respiration Carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus cycle atmospheric pollution gets
deposited by For example: sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds (VOC's) modifies health problems pollution & GHGs determines biomes For example: water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and ozone Primary:Herbivores
Secondary: Carnivores
Tertiary:Carnivores that eat other carnivores Respiration
Bioaccumulation Climate Atmosphere creates biomes atmospheric circulation convection convergence 02 & C02 warm ground warm air Atmospheric composition less dense rises expands cools air lowers O3 O3 Photosynthesis and Respiration air circulation O2 Biodiversity N N2 H cold
and warm air collide O He cold air lifts warm air warm air forms clouds generating precipitation Evolution Adaptions Adaptive Radiation Natural Selection hurricane Speciation Reproductive Isolation acid rain Geographic Isolation oceanic surface temperature rises water evaporates saturated air rises vapour condensates extreme wind, rain and waves R-selected
K-selected small, shortlived, opportunistic larger, longer lived, few offspring Ocean atmospheric pollution wind moon surface water polewards cooling sink to ocean basins flows to Southern ocean flows to North Pacific Competition
Amensalism Regulate global temperature shape weather & climate Cycle elements through biosphere Fossil Fuels interspecific interactions Combustion: CnHx + O2 --> CO2 + H2O Gas - Oil - Coal Generates heat Competitive Exclusion Heats water --> vapour Steam used
to turn turbine Electricity NH3 NH3 Hydrosphere Leaching Denitryfing bacteria N NO N2 N2 Used by denitrifying bacteria Fossil fuel burning and oil refining Burning fossil fuels Biomass burning Transport, industry Fossil fuel combustion Vulcanic eruptions Climate invasive species
over exploitation
habitat loss
predetor loss
climate change
human overpopulation Land surface albedo Photosynthesis creates biomass Biomass used by
consumers Old biomass
turned into
fossil fuels Very espensive
and high
point Effictiveness
dependent on
climate charac-
teristics Only water with
constant high movement
is useful Biomass created
influences climate High economic impact -
social impact: government
subsidies Only certain
climates make for feasible energy production(radiation dependent) Climate change:
greenhouse gased Economic benefit Influence on carbon
cycle through increase
of atmospheric carbon Solar Energy troposphere stratosphere ozone layer aerosol Rivers, Streams & Lakes (Polar)
Ice Caps Glaciers Organisms Groundwater
& Aquifers Evapo-transpiration Condensation Precipitation Soils Fertilisation & Waste water:
Eutrophication Drinkingwater Depletion Clouds can keep more water through polluted air: reduced precipitation in one place, heavier precipitation in another Global warming : melting ice-caps + water expansion Pollution > Acidification Through the processes of Evapotranspiration, Condensation, and Precipitation the Earth's water is recycled. The Hydrological Cycle Deforestation > desertification/flooding Fresh-salt water mix Political Fresh Water Minerals Air Energy Forests Energy Abiotic Biotic Animals Heavy Metals Land Nuclear Geothermal Wind Tidal Solar Rocks Gas Fossil Fuels Liguids Solids Petroleum Oil Gas Bio-fuels Liquids Solids Bioalcohols Stone Coal Brown Coal Biodiesel
& Green Diesel Vegetable Oils Bioethers Biogas Syngas Vegetable Oils Wood Grass
Trimmings Charcoal Agricultural Waste Non-food
Energy Crops Dried Manure Space Hydroelectric Human Activity Waste
Water Waste Water
& Consumption Consumption Waste Water
& Consumption Energy
Consumption Energy
Production Energy
Production Mining Energy Production Manufacturing Luxury Goods Necessities Resources Political
Participation Political
Outcomes Resources & Energy Dependent on:
Population size
Morals & Values (Environmental concerns, Standards of living, etc)
Resource Availability Dependent on:
Population size
Morals & Values (Reliogious/Social Standards, Standards of living, etc)
Resource Availability
Political Economy Dependent on:
Resource Availability
Morals & Values (Reliogious/Social Standards, Standards of living, etc)
Political Economy Ecology as a Resource Environmental
Concern Climatic Concern Political Activism Human Rights Standards of Living Political Values Animal Rights Geochemical Cycles Chemical Cycles Values & Morals Industry Biofuels Agriculture Biofuel Plantations Morals & Values Dietary Habits Recycling Environmental Conservation Ecological
Impact from
Pollution & Deforrestation Biotic Resource For Agriculture Plants Food & Fibre Production Animals Medicine Values Industrial Growth Finance GDP (per Capita) Debt Efficiency International Relations Degree of Economic & Political Liberty Sustainability heat absorption cities topography vegetation relief mosture melting permafrost solar radiation orbital variations earth's gravity lunar gravity Ice surface currents Coriolis force salinity temperature Wind/ Water
flows Moves
turbine Generates
electricity Geothermal Planet's natural radioactive energy Water pumped into earth Water heated by subsurface
heat Steam generated that turns turbine Turbine generates electricity Biofuel Feedstock - 1st/ 2nd/ 3rd
generation Combustion
water into steam Generates

electricity Turned into fuel for motor-
vehicles Problems

Dilemma: food/ fuel
Sustainably growing feedstock
Expenses Negative
on birds and landscape Nuclear Enhancing radio-
active decay of
e.g. uranium Atoms split and
cause large
emission of energy Energy is used
as heat
Water to steam Steam turns turbine
Generates electricity Problems:

Danger of waste Political fear Waste could impact environment Possibly infected cooling water Processes in earth
determine temperature Food/energy debate Discrepancy harvesting - growing H20 Exosphere N2 O2 H2O Ar H HO HO2 H2 O2 O3 (NH4)2SO4 O2+ NO+ N2 O2 O2+ O+ NO+ O N NO e- 8 - 15 km -40 C - 25 C 50 km -3 C 85 km -93 C 500 - 600 km 1700 C CO2 CH4 SO2 CO NO2 NO N2 Ar Ar N2 O2 Ar N2O O3 He H Enhanced Greenhouse Gas Effect methane clathrate released wind salinity of sea decreases temp. rises temp. rises Anthropogenic Greenhouse Gases smog and ground level ozone aerosols and VOC's regional climates Greenhouse Gases health problems conditions for hydrology Ozone depletion Humidity affects condensation Geo-chemical Eutrophication Acidification Land Oceans Atmosphere Polar
Ice Caps Increased evaporation by oceans through global warming accelerated global warming changes evapotranspiration rates of oranisms and soils natural energy cycle waste water causes eutrophication Too much leads to water acidication SO2 Fossil fuel burning Ecology Socio-Economic Needed by plants, too much leads to eutrophication Increase pH-level water CO2 (global warming), CO (health problems) Biomes Aquatic Forest Taiga H
Temprate Grassland Savanna
Temperate Grassland Dessert Semi- arid
Cold Tundra Arctic
Alpine Marine Fresh Water Rivers
Ponds Climate Geo-Chemical Energy Solar Oceans
coral reefs
Esturies Ecosystem Community Biotic Abiotic Animals
Microbes Soil
Sunlight Heat
Enegy C02 & 02 Nitrogen cycle Solar moisture temperature, atmosphere, currents human activity Eutrophication Photosynthesis
& Respiration Resources, society, human activity Nitrogen- fixation dentrification
sulphur Supply Climate Habitats Niches Fundamental Realized Species population Disturbance - Succession Temperature
latitudinal gradient species diversity
ecosystem diversity
genetic diversity hotspots High Species richness
endimisim Human Activity Threats Benefits Social Biological Agriculture Cultural value
human health
business &industry aesthetic value Protection of water resources
Soils formation and protection
Nutrient storage and cycling
Pollution breakdown and absorption
Contribution to climate stability
Maintenance of ecosystems Conservation Resource allocation & managment Fossil fuel Atmosphere concentrations of gases Topography Hydrological cycle natural resources
Society amount of availible 03 water vapor
humidity Br Cl CFC's and HCFC's temp. rises ground temp. rises creates temp. differences creates temp. differences UV-radiation, smog and ground-level ozone regulates regional temp. regulates regional temp., airpressure and humditiy sets conditions for agriculture Industrial products Greenhouse Gases wind and wave power vegetation infrastructure Combustion and industrial products humidity causes weathering creates waterflows N, CO2, CO, SO, NOx etc. Photosynthesis Warmer water warms the atmosphere > changing climates Black carbon reduces the reflection of sunradiation Climate: stores water as ice in the winter hydro energy Geo-Chemical
Pesticides, etc) Waste & Pollution
influencing Geo-Chemical
Cycles Climatic Influences on Agriculture Climatic Climatic Impact from Pollution Health Problems from Pollution Geo-Chemical
Cycles Waste Water
& Consumption
Full transcript