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Behavioral Analysis In Criminal Investigations
Transcript of Behavioral Analysis In Criminal Investigations
History of the Science
-The NCAVC is defined as the National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crimes. It consists of the 4 units of the BAU...
1. Unit 1: Counterterrorism/Threat Assessment
2. Unit 2: Crimes Against Adults
3. Unit 3: Crimes Against Children
4. Unit 4: Violent Criminal Apprehension Program
-Each one of the 56 FBI field offices has a NCAVC liaison who communicate with local and state departments to determine if help from the BAU would be of help to any cases at hand.
-The primary tasks for these agents include coordinating investigations, criminological research, training to various federal and state departments, etc.
George Metesky "Mad Bomber" Case
Ted Bundy Case
Mid-Town Torso Case
WHY THIS TOPIC?
Forensic Psychology, Criminal Profiling, and various other pseudosciences have always appealed to me.
Chapter 21 in Geberth's text had extensive information over this topic, which taught me further about this subject.
The T.V. drama Criminal Minds has also influenced my choice for this topic. While it may be dramatically overdone sometimes, it can be very accurate and even cites real cases.
Phases of an Offender's Crime
Analysts have determined that a criminal who applies to the investigation of the BAU tend to go through 4 different phases of their killings...
1. Antecedent: What plan did the murderer have? What triggered them to change their daily routine?
2. Method and Manner: What type of victim did they pick? What was the criminal's M.O.?
3. Body Disposal: Does the body remain at the primary scene? Or does it get moved to a secondary scene?
4. Post-Offensive Behavior: Does the criminal attempt to involve themselves in the investigation?
Importance of a Signature
This aspect of an offender helps to reveal their true identity. This particular act is a repeated move that can help to target the offender who committed it since they utilize this to call the crime their own. It becomes a "ritualistic" behavior and again, goes to the tendency for humans to be repetitive.
Psychopathic Personality Tendencies
Most cases that recruit the BAU involve traces of an offender who expresses these aspects in their crimes. These characteristics as defined by Geberth include...
Complete disregard for community standards of behavior
Absence of guilt or feelings
Failure by punishment
Desire for immediate satisfaction
Expresses an extrovert personality
Can go "in" and "out" of feelings
Undue dependence on others
Human Behavior Overview
Human behavior, as described by Geberth, is repetitive and "
engaged in at the scene by
certain types of personalities
will tend to repeat themselves."
This method is used by Behavioral Analysts to determine the most probable location of residency for a perpetrator. They look at the various locations of crime scenes to link them to a possible common area in which the criminal may live. Again, due to the human tendency to create habit, criminals are likely to create a comfort zone around their living area.
Geberth, Vernon J. "21. Investigative Assessment: Criminal Personality Profiling." Practical Homicide Investigation: Tactics, Procedures, and Forensic Techniques. Boca Raton, FL: CRC, 1996. 769-852. Print.
DuVal, Ashley. "Behavioral Analysis Unit." History of Forensic Psychology. N.p., n.d. Web. May 2015. <http://forensicpsych.umwblogs.org/fbi/history-of-the-fbi/behavioral-analysis-unit/>.
Kratz, Diane. "A Look Inside the Behavioral Analysis Unit." Profiles of Murder. N.p., 11 Apr. 2012. Web. May 2015. <http://profilesofmurder.com/2012/04/11/a-look-inside-the-bau/>.
Owens, Gerald. "Behavioral Analysis a Key in Solving Violent Crimes :: WRAL.com." WRAL.com. N.p., 12 Nov. 2009. Web. May 2015. <http://www.wral.com/news/local/story/6406756/>.
Winerman, Lea. "Psychological Sleuths--Criminal Profiling: The Reality behind the Myth." Http://www.apa.org. N.p., n.d. Web. May 2015. <http://www.apa.org/monitor/julaug04/criminal.aspx>.
"Behavioral Research and Instruction Unit." FBI. FBI, 12 Aug. 2010. Web. May 2015. <http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cirg/investigations-and-operations-support/briu>.
Factors that Determine Profile
The profile itself involves many aspects and is affected by them accordingly. These include...
Age, Sex, Race, Upbringing
Marital Status, Lifestyle, Academic History, Intelligence
Appearance, Hygiene Habits, Emotional Tendencies
Work Habits, Socioeconomic Economic Status, Sexual Adjustment
Applying the Profile to the Investigation
The most beneficial profile begins with the critical information derived from the crime scene. This information, in addition to victimology, autopsy and toxicology reports, neighborhood, etc. help the profile to identify the subject's tendencies.
Once developed, the profile is presented to the department as well as local media and community members to keep a vigilant eye on possible suspects who fit the parameters.
This profile is particularly useful in cases where a specific pyschopathological aspect is discovered, such as; sexual sadism, rape, ritualism, post-mortem mutilation, etc.
It also helps to narrow the leads and direct the investigation to perpetrator.
Due to its nature, humans attain the ability to give themselves away by having certain traits in their behavior that make some actions predictable.
This typicality of humans is the basis for criminal investigative analysis and allows it to be a reliable source of information.
1880's: 2 physicians named George Phillips and Thomas Bond unknowingly use criminal profiling to make predictions about Jack the Ripper according to clues left at scenes.
1950's-70's: Dr. James A. Brussels begins solving high-profile cases using behavioral analysis
1974: The Behavioral Science Unit (BSU) is instated to help in serial rape and homicide cases.
1984: The BSU is split into the BSU and the Behavioral Science Investigative Support Unit, with the latter specializing in the investigation of criminals themselves.
1994: Various crisis management, behavioral and tactical aspects are formed into a conglomerate with the Critical Incident Response Group and is dubbed the Investigative Support Group.
1997: The group transforms into the Behavioral Analysis Unit.
2001: The BAU is split into 4 units and NCAVC is formed.
Metesky plants 30+ bombs around the New York area from 1940-56. Law enforcement decides to recruit mental hygienist, Dr. James Brussels to analyze
scene photos and see if he can predict anything about the culprit. He determines that he would be self-educated, in his 50's, foreign, unmarried and paranoid. Due to his predictions, cops were lead straight to Metesky's door, who confessed immediately in 1957.
Multiple murders were linked in New Jersey and New York. The suspect
continually sought after prostitutes and proceeded to brutally torture, rape and then reduce their bodies to torsos. Afterward, he would set fire to the motel rooms that he committed these crimes in. Due to his signature and unique M.O., Richard Cottingham was linked to 6 murders.
Being on of the most charismatic and prolific serial killers in America's history, Bundy is best known for his obsessive
signature of victim positioning and regression from being an organized to disorganized offender. Even in his death, Bundy and his actions are still being studied be behavioral analysts to further explore the tendencies of a predisposed serial killer.