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Flowers

Structure of Flowers, flower parts, variety, pollination, and fertilization
by

Miss McPhelin

on 24 August 2013

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Transcript of Flowers

Flowers Structure of Flowers Plants' Flowers
vary greatly from plant to plant
range in size and number
all flowers have one primary function for the plant: to produce seeds for reproduction Flower Parts
Sepals
leaflike structures attached to the receptacle
protect the developing flower and are often green in color Variety in Structure Complete flower: has sepals, petals, stamens, and pistils Incomplete flower: lacks one or more of these four basic parts The red "petals" of a poinsettia aren't really petals at all. They are special leaves called bracts, so they are incomplete. Staminate: flowers that lack pistils and only have stamens - male flowers Pistillate: lack stamens and bear only pistils - female flowers Arrangement on stem:
can have each flower on a different stem or all flowers on the same stem in clusters 2 1 3 Factors Affecting Flowering The main factor for most plants is the length of daylight and night. Other factors include temperature and soil fertility. Photoperiodism: the requirement of a definite period of light and darkness before a plant will flower Plants, like humans, utilize the sun "for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years" (Genesis 1:14) Short-Day Plants: plants that require long periods of darkness and shorter periods of light to flower Long-Day Plants: plants that require a shorter period of darkness to flower Day-Neutral Plants: produce flowers no matter day length open at 5am and close at noon Morning Glory: Chrysanthemums need a long period of darkness, can be given more light to delay flowering if necessary Dandelion day length doesn't matter Gladiolus needs more sunlight than darkness Seed Development Fruits protect seeds as they are forming and help distribute them POLLINATION: the transfer of pollen from an anther to the stigma portion of a pistil SELF-POLLINATION: pollen from an anther sticks to a stigma of the same flower or with another flower on the same plant CROSS-POLLINATION: pollen from an anther of one plant is transferred to a stigma of a flower on another plant by bees, butterflies, moths, wind, other insects, small animals, rain, birds FERTILIZATION: once pollination occurs, the POLLEN (the male part) fuses with the OVULES (the female part) to begin the development into seeds GAMETES: reproductive cells
male part = pollen
female part = ovules p
o
l
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n WHEAT: The Staff of Life One of the world's most important seed plants
Main food source for many people in the world
Christ even compared Himself to bread "As bread is the sustainer of the physical body, so Christ is the source and sustainer of spiritual life" John 6:32-33
Jesus said to them, “Very truly I tell you, it is not Moses who has given you the bread from heaven, but it is my Father who gives you the true bread from heaven. For the bread of God is the bread that comes down from heaven and gives life to the world.” Matthew 4:4
Jesus answered, “It is written: ‘Man shall not live on bread alone, but on every word that comes from the mouth of God.’ ” The Lord's Prayer "Give us today our daily bread." Miracles: Five loaves of bread and two fish Matthew 26:26
While they were eating, Jesus took bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it and gave it to his disciples, saying, “Take and eat; this is my body.” Luke 3:17
His winnowing fork is in his hand to clear his threshing floor and to gather the wheat into his barn, but he will burn up the chaff with unquenchable fire.” SEED STRUCTURE SEEDS: final result of flower and fruit formation, fully developed and matured ovules that are capable of producing a new plant
young embryo plant
seed coat: protective covering, a scar (hilum) marks the place where the seed was attached to the ovary wall The embryo is the living part of within a seed.
plumule: tiny shoot that will develop into the stem and leaves of the plant
radicle: will develop into the root system of the plant
one or two cotyledons that contain stored food for energy for the seed (as starch) GERMINATION: the sprouting of a seed
Dormancy: a period of inactivity before germination
Factors that favor germination:
1. adequate supply of moisture
2. adequate supply of oxygen
3. favorable temperature
4. proper soil conditions
5. sufficient sunlight A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
K. Do Now: What are flowers? Learning Targets:
I can explain the function of flowers.
I can identify the parts of a flower.
I can describe the difference between male and female parts of a flower. Watch the following video silently.
Be ready to state the similarities you saw between all of the flowers.
You may jot notes down on your paper. Why do some plants have flowers? Flowers house the egg and/or sperm of the plant to allow the plant to reproduce. Before we learn about how flowers aid in the plant's reproduction, let us look at the flower's set up. Keep in mind that some flowers lack one or more of these structures, not all flowers have both male and female parts. What kind of flowers have only male or female parts?
Petals
colorful and/or scented to attract insects and animals
leaflike
shape, size ,and number of petals vary greatly from plant to plant Reproductive Parts of a Flower Stamens
•male reproductive parts
•the thin stalk is the filament
•the anther is where the pollen is produced at the top of the filament Filament Anther Pistils
center of most flowers
some flowers have two or more pistil
stigma is the sticky part at the top
a tube that connects the stigma to the base of the flower is the style
at the base of the flower is the ovary The Flower's ovary
protects the egg
will then protect the seed during development 1 2 Reproductive Parts:
Some flowers have both female and male reproductive parts, these are called perfect flowers. Other flowers have only male or female reproductive parts, called imperfect flowers. Seeds are developed from the joining of what two parts of a plant? Where is the pollen produced? Anther of the stamen Pollen (sperm) and Egg of the plant must join Where are the eggs produced? The ovules of the ovary The pollen grains stick to the sticky part of the pistil. What is that yellow sticky thing?? The grains produce pollen tubes which grow down the tube that connects the stigma and ovary. What is that tube?? The pollen tubes make their way to the small parts of the ovaries called?? Ovules A sperm cell moves through a tube, what tube is that?? The sperm fertilizes the egg.
The egg and sperm joined creates what? The ovule will become part of the seed. What part could it become? The ovary and other structures will turn into something that will protect the seed even more. What would that be??? The seed is dispersed and will develop into a new plant.
What would affect when the seed develops? Once this plant sprouts, does the process stop here? NO! it’s a cycle Cross Pollination
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