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Life on Mars?
Transcript of Life on Mars?
*Fourth from the Sun
*Named after the Roman God
*Believed to have life
(darks spots and lines)
*Barren with frequent and
severe dust storms
*No liquid H2O, limited oxygen
*Temperatures: -29 to -84 Celsius
Chemical Test 1: Mass Spectometer
Chemical Test 2: Gas Exchange
Chemical Test 3 and Chemical Test 4:
Label Release and Pyrolytic Release
Conclusion: May of 2008
Hsu, Tom. "Evidence For The Life on Mars." A Natural Approach to Chemistry. 4th ed. Ronkonkoma, NY: Lab-Aids, 2010. 685. Print.
"Mars." Astronomy & Space: From the Big Bang to the Big Crunch. Gale, 2011. Science In Context. Web. 18 June 2013.
"Gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer." World of Forensic Science. Ed. K. Lee Lerner and Brenda Wilmoth Lerner. Detroit: Gale, 2006. Science In Context. Web. 18 June 2013.
"Gas Exchange." Biology. Ed. Richard Robinson. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2009. Science In Context. Web. 18 June 2013.
Chiesl, Thomas N., et al. "Analysis of carbonaceous biomarkers with the Mars Organic Analyzer microchip capillary electrophoresis system: carboxylic acids." Astrobiology 11.6 (2011): 519+. Science In Context. Web. 18 June 2013.
By: Melba Flores
Life on Mars
The Viking Mission in 1976
*1962: Mars 1
*1972: Mars 2+3
*Sent More Spacecraft:
One Successful Transmission
*Phobos program failed
*1965: Mariner 4
- less than 1%
*1969: Mariner 6+7
-Structure and compostion
-Polar caps=haze, dry ice, and clouds
*1971: Mariner 9
*Both Vikinigs landed on opposite sides of the planet
*Reddish boulder and sky inticated the presence of iron oxide
*Carbon dioxide: 95.32 percent
*Nitrogen: 2.7 percent
*Argon: 1.6 percent
*Oxygen: 0.13 percent
*Carbon monoxide: 0.08 percent
***Also, minor amounts of: water, nitrogen moxide, neon, hydrogen-deuterium-oxygen, krypton and xenon
****Four Chemical Tests on Maritian Soil to see if there was any past or present life on Mars!****
The Ion Source
The Mass Analyzer
*The sample is attacked by electrons generated by a heated filament
*The elements of the sample are created into ions
*Cautions and neutral are deflecte
-gas: leaks in the ion sorce
-liquid/solids: pushed away by a repeller plate
*ions don't last long, so atomic pressure is 778 torr
*Sorts the ions by mass-to-charge ratio
-A vertical graph is drawn m/z
-The abundance of the ion radiates a signal that helps organize the proportion of the element in each ion
-The abundance is shown by the height of the bar
*Measures the quantity of the indicator
*Measures and identifies the abundances of each ion:
-patterns in fragmentation
- already identified
Masses of molecules
*Conatains less CO2than lifeless lunar soil (Apollo program)
*One morning frost was discovered on the sides of a trench that the lander previously
*Found several salts and perchlorate
-percolates are found naturally on Earth in Chile's hyper-acid Atacama Desert
Added a drop of dilute aqueous solution tagged with a radioactive 14C
*Expose to light and CO2
*Incubation of sample
-Looking for photosynthesis
NO LIFE DETECTED
*Diffusion Follows Fick's Law
-Distance between the molecules
-Dissolve in a fluid
-Treated with a liquid complex of organic and inorganic nutirents
*Looked for O2, CO2, h2, and CH4 and N2