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Copy of MSA presentation: Is cancer merely an immune malfunction?

Freya ist Babo
by

Antonina Federrath

on 24 March 2015

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Transcript of Copy of MSA presentation: Is cancer merely an immune malfunction?

Carcinoma
Sarcoma
Lymphoma
Leukemia
Adenoma
What is cancer?
Types of cancer
How the Immune System works:
PD-1/ PD-L1
Which cancers influence the immune response?
How the Immune System can fight cancer through Immunotherapy:
Why Immunotherapy is not effective with all cancers:
Conclusion
Index
IS CANCER MERELY AN
IMMUNE MALFUNCTION?
abnormal cell growth
mutations/failure in genes responsible for cell division
start to form clumps tumors
start interfering with systems
carcinogens promote cancer
3 pillars of cancer treatment
over 200 types, 5 broad groups:
Why cancer still spreads
not recognized immunoselection
What the immune system does:
protects the body against illness and infection
eliminates damaged cells
Innate immunity:
Acquired Immunity and its Parts:
skin barrier
This natural protection can be damaged!
obtained immunity through exposure to an antigen by developing antibodies
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)
B Cells
T Cells
prevents maturation of dendritic cells
problems with presenting
antigens

bone marrow
tumor neovasculature
"reprograms" endothelial cells
creates thymic atrophy
decrease in
B cells and T cells
cytotoxic T lymphocytes:
helper T lymphocytes:
soluble factors (
VEGF
)
activated CTL scan cells for antigen
destroy cells with antigen
activate other immune cells
stimulate B cells to make antibodies
new discovery (2008) immunosuppression
suppressor T cells:
produce substances to help end an immune response
prevent harmful responses from occurring
mature in thymus
three different types
lymphocytes
Dendritic Cells (DC)
Cytokines
important parts for a cancer response
Antigen Presenting Cells (
APC
)
antigen processing
ingest and break antigens
activate B and T cells
"messengers" of immune system
Immunoglobins (Ig)
B cells
plasma cells
Ig
tag invaders and abnormal cells
help cytotoxic T cells kill cancer cells
self-identification antigens; "dress code of our body"
all have some sort of defense against immune system
grows as metastasis occurs
solid tumors more suppression
easier targets
less in leukemia and lymphoma
blocking the PD-1/ PD-L1 pathway
Immune Checkpoint
Immune-Modifying Agents
enhance the immune system
cytokines
, antibodies etc.
monoclonal antibody created in lab
restore or enhance immune system
interferons stop division of cancer cells
needed factors that are believed to result in effectiveness:
have things on surface
attract immune cells
shut off immune system
other checkpoint that needs to be blocked?
immunological ignorance?
cytokines (chemokines)?
improve, target and restore the bodies natural defenses
different types
Lymphatic System
cancer cells are transported from tissue
lymph nodes
lymph
filtered and destroyed
hormones
RBC
the ideal immune response
adoptive cell transfer (
ACT
)

tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (
TIL
s) harvested
grown activated re-infused
T cells harvested
genetically modified
CAR
infused
Immune Cell Therapy
Cancer Vaccines
substances or cells harvested from tumor
to treat already developed cancers
effective stimulate specific immune response against the correct target
neutrophils and natural killer cells
inner linings of guts and lungs
pro-inflammatory cytokines
decrease of
MHC
alterations in T-cell functions/receptors
immunosuppression
poor prognosis
disrupts T cell and B cell function
normally protects tissue
binds to
ligands
(PD-L1)
programed cell death protein 1 receptor on B and T cells
1. What is cancer?
1.1 types of cancer
2. How the immune system works
2.1 the ideal immune response to cancer
3. How cancer evades the immune system
3.1 immunosuppression
3.2 VEGF
3.3 PD1/PDL1
3.4 which cancers influence the immune response
4. Immunotherapy
4.1 different types
4.2 why the effectiveness of immunotherapy varies
Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC)
present on every cell of our own body
Biologie Heute, entdecken -Schroedel (Publishing Company), 2004 Edition, Pages 294-297
Longman GCSE Biology -Longman (Publishing Company), 2002 Edition, Pages 312-321, 324
As & A Level Human Biology through Diagrams -Oxford University Press, 2002 Edition, Pages 45,46,10
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common conception: genetic malfunction
Based on our research, we now believe that the common conception of cancer as a largely genetic malfunction should be revised. It should instead be understood as largely the result of a malfunction of the immune system.
This has opened a fascinating new area of research into the treatment of cancer; immunotherapy. It is too early to talk of a a cure for cancer and people must still take responsibility for those life-choices that provoke cancer.
cancerous cells
regulate normal cell function
produce
antibodies
Full transcript