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The Nature of Science,

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Valerie Henderson

on 19 September 2016

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Transcript of The Nature of Science,

The Scientific Method
"Classifying Matter"
Measurement
Essential Questions:
Size and Scale
The Nature of Science,
Matter, and
Measurement

Thank you!
Chemistry
Unit 1

an organized approach to solving problems and learning about how the natural world works
You use it on a daily basis:
Where are my keys?
Where is my bag?
Can you think of any others?
Monty Python and the Boy in the Water
Watch these video clips from Monty Python and answer the questions on the associated worksheet.
Inference vs Observation:
Observation:
using one or more senses
to obtain information
This is not an opinion
Ex: sight, smell, taste, touch, hearing
Inference:
using what you know to make an educated guess
Based on reasoning from what you already know.
This can be a scientific opinion.
Experimental Design
Now that you've refreshed your knowledge of the scientific method, we're going to look at how it is used to design and carry out experiments. This is a skill that will be drawn upon throughout our study of Chemistry.
Please turn to "Fundamentals of Experimental Design"
You may work with your partner to complete this packet.
Once you are finished, you may start on designing your own experiment on "An apple a day..."
Essential Questions:
1. What is matter?
2. What are the 4 phases matter can be found in?
3. Create a diamond foldable to describe classifications of matter.
Please take out a piece of folder paper and write the proper heading on it.
Title: Unit 1 Warm-ups
You do not need a new piece of paper for each warm-up, you may leave a line or two of space in between each warm-up question.
Each warm-up will have its own title and date.
Title: Millions to Measure Sort
5 minutes.
Please be prepared to share your answer with the class.
Unit 1
title:
1. What are the units to measure length, volume, and mass?
2. For the following prefixes, write the number to express them.
kilo-, deci-, centi-, milli-, micro-
1 min. discuss with partner. Be prepared to share with class.
2 min. Write the question. Think about the answer.
Write your answer.
In 1999, NASA lost a $125 million mars orbiter because the Lockheed Martin group of Engineers used the English system (pounds, inches, feet) while the NASA scientists used the SI units (centimeters, meters) for a key.
After 286 days of traveling to Mars, the orbiter, fired its engine to push itself into Mars orbit. Because of the discrepancies in calculations based on the two teams using different measurement systems, the orbiter entered Mars atmosphere instead of going in to orbit around the planet. It was burned up on entry into the atmosphere because it wasn't meant to withstand the heat.
http://www.cnn.com/TECH/space/9909/30/mars.metric.02/
Systems of measurement:
Measurement is a type of data that is often collected in science experiments.
Types of
data:
qualitative
quantitative
What's the difference?
numbers
descriptions
Examples:
The desk is
1 meter tall.
The desk is
heavy
U.S. Customary Units
Metric
Based on:
How many countries use it?
3
All others
http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/english-system-of-measurement-definition-history-advantages-disadvantages.html#lesson
some from Romans,
lengths on body
meter and gram
multiples of 10
base units:
One of the most important things in science is that findings are communicated to the scientific community. It's all about collaboration!
Why might sharing scientific findings be important?
2 min discuss with partner.
Why is it called America and not Columbosa?
America is named after a lesser known explorer, Amerigo Vespuchi. He traveled
to
the "New World" after Columbus but he did one thing Columbus didn't...
He wrote about it!
A cartographer was making a map of the new world and read about Vespuchi's travels and named the new continents after him.
SI Units:
SI stands for systeme international d'unites
The system is built on seven base units.
Please copy this table into your notes.
Base units can be too large or small for some measurements so the base units are modified using prefixes.
SI prefixes:
1,000
100
10
.1
.01
.001
With your partner, write the factor as a number (or decimal).
With your partner, determine what is the pattern you see here as you look at each prefix.
going down the column?
going up the column?
decrease by a factor of 10
increase by a factor of 10
On your metric system notes,
Please complete the metric ladder.
Title: Experimental Design Date:1-14
What do you think important steps are to take when designing an experiment? Why are they important?
Now that you've answered on your own, discuss with your partner and be prepared to share your answer(s).
Write down any vocabulary associated with experiments.
Experimental Design
We've discussed the importance of asking questions and testing hypotheses in science. Now, we're going to review the process by which this is accomplished.
Intro to POGIL.
Process
Oriented
Guided
Inquiry
Learning
What is POGIL?
It is based on a group-learning research-based strategy
The goal of POGIL is to foster critical thinking, problem-solving and collaboration in a classroom.
It asks you to interpret models.
All of the information you need to solve the problems/answer the questions is in the POGIL
Please turn to your POGIL: "Fundamentals of Experimental Design"
Please read to yourself the paragraph at the top under the word, "Why."
When you're done reading, look up so I know you're finished.
In a POGIL, you will be given models to look at. Read all of the info carefully. It is important for understanding the concept being taught.
with your partner, please read and answer the following 4 questions.
When you finish, move on to the next page and work until the stop sign.
trial 1
number of tablets
final temperature
volume of vinegar
room pressure
initial temperature
similarities:
volume of alcohol
room pressure
all contain C,H,O
differences:
number of carbons
boiling point (b.p.)
type of alcohol
boiling point
volume of alochol
room pressure
On the first page, you have some space at the bottom...
Concept Check:
Please write this question in that space and take 2 minutes to think about your answer to it.
Is there a pattern in how many variables (things) are changed in models 2 and 3? Are all the things changed in each of the trials in models 2 and 3?
Now that you've had time to think about your answer, please discuss it with your partner. Be prepared to share.
In each of the trials, only 1 variable (thing) is changed.
In experiments, it is important that in order to test hypotheses, only one thing (variable) can be changed. All other variables must remain the same.
That means it's an important point!
it's important to always read the read this section! It contains very important information.
number of
tablets
final
temperature
initial temperature
volume of vinegar
room pressure
type of
alcohol
boiling point
volume of alochol
room pressure
Please work on these questions and the questions on page 4 with your partner.
An Apple a Day...
With your partner, choose a statement
from those listed on your worksheet.
Your job is to design an experiment to test the validity (if it is true or not) of the claim.
Once you have finished your write-up (be sure to use the rubric on the back), find another group who is also finished and trade. You grade them, they grade you. (T&G = trade and grade)
With your partner, work together to sort the pictures by what unit you would use to accurately measure the items in the pictures.
Sort
You will be given pieces of paper that have pictures, words or titles on them. Your job is to sort them into categories. Sometimes the categories will be given to you and sometimes you will based on the items given, you will have to sort them into categories that you decide.
Title:
Measurement in Science
In chemistry, you will spend time gathering quantitative data, generally in the form of measurements.
List as many measurements using the metric system as you can.
centimeter
Date:
Why do you think science uses a set of units that have been agreed upon to be the same internationally?
Please also enter this in your T.O.C.
Title: Analyzing and Interpreting Scientific Data
Please use the class copies to answer questions 1-10 on the paper you picked up yesterday.
Don't forget to put this in your T.O.C.
Don't forget to put this in your T.O.C.
(this goes in notes section)
Don't forget to put this in your T.O.C.
notes section
10 minutes
Here's one to get you started...
Note-taking
When taking notes in this class, we will use a modified version of Cornell Notes.
title
date
unit:
Essential Questions:
Objective:
Thinking Side:
Main Notes:
Summary:
For your notes summary, you will answer the essential questions (in complete sentences).
pictures,
questions,
headings/
sub-headings
Objective: To understand the metric system (specifically S.I. units) and collect data using it as well as convert between units.
On the inside of your metrics foldable...
length/distance
mass
volume
basic unit:
meter
abbreviation:
To measure length:
mass is:
m
ruler
meterstick
tape measure
a measure of the number of atoms in an object combined with the density of those atoms
basic unit:
gram
To measure mass:
use a balance (triple beam or analytical)
volume is:
the amount of space a substance or object occupies
basic unit:
Liter
Abbreviation:
L
To measure volume:
Abbreviation:
g
graduated cylinder
volumetric flask
Using a Ruler:
This ruler measures in millimeters
Most rulers measure in centimeters.
With your partner, look at the ruler you have (be sure you're looking at the metric side!) and decide what unit the smaller tick marks measure.
millimeters
Using a triple beam balance:
1. Read the number on the hundreds line.
2. Read the number on the 10s line.
3. Read the number on the ones line.
Add up all the numbers.
That is the total mass of your object.
With your partner, what is the unit that the mass you calculate will be in?
grams
Measuring volume: using a graduated cylinder
What's a sort?
http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/cells/scale/
micrometers
femtometer
meter
nanometer
kilometer
micrometer
terameter
meter
meter
meter
meter (kilometer?)
meter
(centimeter?)
centimeter
kilometer
millimeter
kilometer
millimeter
meter
kilometer
kilometer
(gigameter?)
centimeter
(millimeter?)
nanometer
nanometer
micrometer
On your metric system notes foldable, please turn to this section:
kilo
deca
hecta
centi
deci
milli
1,000
100
10
1
.1
.01
.001
meter
liter
gram
How much larger is deca compared to the base unit?
10
How many times larger is hecta than deca?
10x
How many times larger is kilo than hecta?
10x
How many times larger is deci than centi?
10x
How many times larger is centi than milli?
10x
What is the pattern you see in size difference between each unit and the unit "below" it on the "ladder"?
The metric Ladder
Units next to each other are 10x larger or smaller.
x 10
x 10
x 10
x 10
x 10
x 10
Converting between units in the metric system:
Because each unit is 10x smaller or 10x larger than the unit next to it, is why you can "move" the decimal one place.
What does it mean to move the decimal one place?
it's all about place value!
In the number: 327
What are the places of each digit?
hundreds
tens
ones
1s
10s
100s
As we move left, how many times larger is each position?
10x
As we move right, how many times smaller is each position?
10x
1
10
or
Now, with a decimal...
327.4
tenths
17.591
What place is the 4 in?
tenths
hundredths
thousandths
.
.
As we move further left, each place is 10x larger
As we move further right, each place is 10x smaller
decimal really means:
based on 10
from latin: decima
a tenth part
Now it's your turn!
Try to complete all the conversions on this page!
let's see how you did!
1
milli- is how many times smaller than the base unit?
1,000 times smaller
So for every 1 gram, there would be how many milligrams?
1,000 mg
Remember that Liter is a base unit.
What is the value of base units?
1
milli- means?
one thousandth
What is one thousandth as a fraction?
1
1,000
So how many milliliters in 1 L?
1,000
What does centi- mean?
one hundredth
Written as a fraction?
1
100
Milli- means?
one thousanth
Written as a fraction?
1
1,000
How many times bigger is centi- compared to milli?
10x
So, because 1 cm is 10x bigger than 1 mm, you need to increase the number in centimeters by 10x (multiply by 10) to convert it to mm.
1600
double check. Does this number make sense?
Which is the smaller unit?
mm
When you're going from cm mm, do you expect your mm value to be smaller or bigger than the equivalent amount in cm?
Bigger because mm is the smaller unit so it takes more mm to be the same amount of cm.
Warm- up:
"Thinking metrically"
1. What unit would you measure the depth of the deepest point of Hanauma Bay in?__________


2. What unit would you measure the mass of one spam musubi in? _________


3. What unit would you measure the volume of a glass of water in? _________

meters
grams
milliliters
Which is the bigger unit? kilometers or meters?
14,000
Which is the bigger unit?
kilograms
How many grams in 1 kilogram?
1,000
more or less kg?
less
dividing or multiplying?
divide
by 1,000
0.109
0.250
How many milligrams in 1 gram?
1,000
Is 698 milligrams more than or less than 1 gram?
less than 1 gram
kg
m
g
mL
mm
L
km
cm
mg
2
5,000
104,000
4.8
5600
560
.8
.198
160
2.5
.075
65,000
0.5
0.12
63
1
2
3
4
5
Aww or Ouch?
kilo puppies
centi iphone
kilo-papercuts
deca babies
kilo-dollars
milli-puppy
hecto-iphone
centi-papercut
deci-baby
milli-dollar
Warm-up 4:
"Measurement Tools Used in Lab"
What do we use to measure_________

mass
volume
length/distance
balance (triple beam or analytical)
graduated cylinder
ruler or meter stick
Our First Lab
Pre-lab:
Before each lab, we will complete pre-lab work. The purpose of this work is to know what you are going to do in the lab and why.
Lab Rules:
Are we using heat, chemicals or glassware?
Yes (glassware)
Safety goggles and closed-toed shoes required.
Absolutely NO MESSING AROUND.
All of the instruments you will be using are tools to help you complete this lab. They are never to be used as toys in any way.
Did you turn in your safety contract? Pass the safety quiz with 100%?
If not, then no lab participation.
Pre-Lab Continued
Lab Group Member Roles:
1. Scribe
Writes down data so that other group members can complete the work
example: If lab work requires hands or gloves getting messy.
2. Task Manager
This person ensures all group members are working and contributing
example: One person isn't doing all of the work.
This person also is responsible for making sure the lab group is completing the lab by following the directions.
3. Foreman:
This person communicates with the teacher. They represent the group. They ask questions to the teacher if the group is confused.

If we need to collect data from each group, this person will share with other group's foreman or write on the board (depending on teacher's directions).
Lab Group Roles...continued
"Balances, Rulers and Cylinders...oh my!"
At each lab station, you will find the materials you need to complete the lab as well as the lab directions (they are class copies in page protectors)
You will be writing a lab report for this lab.
Please turn to the lab report write-up how to sheet
(it says TITLE: Use the title on the lab worksheets) at the top
Please get out a piece of folder paper and title it using the lab title at the top of this slide.
Purpose:
To use lab tools for measurement to make simple measurements so that students know how to use these tools in future Chemistry labs.
At the top of your paper, please put your proper paper heading. In addition to what we usually include on our proper paper heading, please also write your group role.
Proper paper heading (for labs):
Last name, first name
Date(s):
Period:
Unit:
Group Members:
My Group Role:
Hypothesis:
For this lab, you will be completing mutliple different tests to practice measuring volume and mass.
Please make hypotheses that answer the following questions:
How many drops of water will it take to equal a milliliter of water?
Will the water level in graduated cylinder rise if you place 3 marbles in it?
Is the volume of a drop of water different if the water is colored using food coloring?
Materials:
Write a list using bullets
Procedures:
In this case, you will have multiple procedures. You are going to write a procedure for each part. Write all the procedures in this section, please.
write in step-wise format (number format)
Data:
Lab data is always written in an organized manner.
The purpose of writing down data is so that you can analyze it and decide if it supports or rejects your hypothesis.
If you can't read and/or follow your data, you can't support or reject your hypothesis and the experiment is pointless.
If your data is not in a readable and organized (well labeled!) format, I will not grade your lab report.
Quantitative Data:
numbers or descriptions?
Data Table:
Data part A:
drops to 11mL

drops to 12mL

drops to 13mL

drop number
Average:
drops
Discussion:
This is written in paragraph form.
Be sure to see the directions and include all the required elements:
Explain what you did to conduct the experiment.
Explain your observations/results/data.
Explain anything that went wrong and how you could improve your experiment or lab techniques.

Conclusion:
This is a summary of the lab.
This is where you accept or reject your hypothesis based on your data and discussion.
You must say why you accept or why you reject your hypothesis based on your data results.
Please read the next page which describes proper and improper grammar and other terms.
Please read the rubric on the next page so you know how each lab report will be graded.
Lab Processing:
Please write up your conclusion and discussion using the rubric given.
In your discussion, please be sure to write about your procedures and data collection.
In your conclusion, please be sure to support your answer as to whether or not you accepted your hypothesis with evidence.
What is evidence?
your data
1,000 puppies
a puppy cut into 1,000 pieces
No warm-up today!
Quiz 1.2

Please work individually to complete your quiz. You may use a calculator, you may not use your phone as a calculator.
There are 6 questions.
They include:
selection
conversions
short answer
"Writing Big Numbers"
(Please)
write the number:
300 million
300,000,000
That's a lot of numbers to write!
Can we write this any other way? (
hint: a shorter version that requires less numbers
)
How about scientific notation?
3 x 10
8
How did we do that?
You just completed a lab using various measurement devices you will use often in Chemistry labs...
Please read the "why" section with your partner. Please be prepared to answer this question:
Why is it important to have a standard method for recording measurements?
between 0 and 10 cm
No, some have different numbers for ones place, tenths and hundreds place.
They could divide it in 4 pieces. The metal strip is more than one quarter of the ruler but less than one half.
They could divide it in thirds and see that the metal strip is about one third of the ruler length long.
Each centimeter
ones place (3)
The tick marks on the ruler and in 1cm increments.
Model 1, Ruler A
It did not have smaller increments to show individual centimeters.
The ones and the tenths (3.2)
Each centimeter was broken up into millimeters.
He has one more digit he can estimate based on the smallest marks.
Ruler C has smaller increments than ruler B, allowing Maya to measure 3.2 and estimate the digit in the hundredths place.
Ruler B because she was able to measure to the ones place and estimate the tenths.
He could accurately measure to the tenths place and estimate for the hundredths.
7
7.0
7
7.00
A valid measurement for this ruler would have how many digits?
3 - the ones, tenths, and hundredths
Please get out folder paper and write down the following
Title:
"Significant Digits and Measurement POGIL Extension Questions"
To take full advantage of the instrument's measurement capabilities. There should always be certain digits (that are read directly) and one estimated (uncertain) digit.
Only the first two (the 7 and 5) are.
hint: look on the class copies (pg. 3)
Yes, it is valid because the marks every 100 allow you to say with certainty the 7 and estimate the 5.
Please title this paper:
"Significant Digits and Measurement"
Don't forget to put this in your T.O.C.!
Unit: 1
Warm up 5:
"Chemquest 1: Numbers in Chemistry"
Don't forget to put this in your T.O.C.!
QFT - Question Formulation Techniques
Ground Rules:
1. Ask as many questions as you can.
2. Do not stop to discuss, judge, or answer the questions.
3. Write down every question exactly as stated.
4. Change any statement into a question.
1. Select a scribe

2. Follow the ground rules of QFT

3. Share questions slowly to allow the scribe to capture questions accurately.

4. Number your questions: 1, 2, 3, etc.
STEP 1:
Step 2: Categorizing Questions
Identify the level of your questions.
Level 1:
Specific information that can be found directly in the text.
One word, yes/no, copy/paste answers.
Level 2:
Answer implied in the text by finding information for the answer in several places.
Level 3:
Answers based on experiences and opinions that are supported by textual facts.

Step 3: Improving Questions
Look over your list of questions and select three (3) questions to "bump up"
Change a level 1 to a 2 or 3
Continue your numbering with these questions
Step 4: Prioritizing Questions
Choose the two (2) most important questions from your list.
Keep this in mind when selecting questions:
What questions would you need answered to learn about matter in the context of Chemistry?
Share your Questions
Please share:
Two (2) priority questions
Rationale for selecting those questions.
The numbers of your priority questions.
Question Level
Step 6: QFT Written Participant Reflection
Why is learning to ask your own questions important for learning?
What have you learned, how you learned it, and how you will use what you learned.
Please write the answers to these questions on a piece of folder paper and when you're done, wait until the end of the time (7 minutes).
Objective:
Students will be able to describe what matter is, the states it is found in and how it changes from one state to another and what those changes are called.
Thinking Side
Main Notes
What is matter?
Please write the question and a take a minute to write down your thoughts.
Objects that take up space and have mass have matter.
Everything around you has matter.
Examples:
Come up with 3 examples of things that are composed of matter.
Non-examples:
desk
person
whiteboard
wind
You can feel it on your skin but it's the movement of air (air has matter)
electricity
movement of electrons (the electrons are ,made of matter)
sound
Result of air movement on your ear drum. Not matter.
fire
The smoke that rises up from the fire or flame contains vaporized gases and small particles and therefore contains matter.
But the fire and flame themselves, the light and heat emitted, are energy, not matter.
Sort!
Matter or Not?
Remember, to complete a sort, you work with your group (or partner) to sort the items given to you into categories. Today, the categories are given to you.
Matter
Not Matter
Classification of Matter
All matter is composed of 110 different kinds of _______.
atoms
Mixtures
Compounds
Element
Classification of Matter
Atoms:
All matter is composed of about 110 different kinds of atoms.
How small is an atom?
draw!
http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/cells/scale/
Think-Write-Pair-Share_Write
It would take more than 3 million atoms side by side to span a millimeter.
Pure substances that contain only one kind of atom.
pure substance:
Sample of matter, either a single element or a single compound that has definite chemical and physical properties.
Smallest amount of an element.
Allotrope
different molecular forms of an element
O
O
2
3
Ex:
Pure substances that are not elements.
more than one kind of atom
2 atoms of oxygen and 1 atom of Carbon.
carbon dioxide
contain 2 or more pure substances
alloy
mixture of metals
ex: alloy wheels
= steel mixture
doesn't always have the same balance of ingredients
poke is a mixture of what?
depends on the poke...
shoyu, spicy ahi, etc.
Types of Matter
Foldable
Picture on front flap.
Example on back of flap.
Definition(s) on paper inside.
"Changes in Matter"
Is the making of elephant toothpaste a chemical change or a physical change?
Watch the demonstration of making elephant toothpaste.
Warm-up 7
Please state why (How do you know?)
When Matter Changes:
An example using the water cycle.
As you watch the water cycle demonstration, list all the changes of state that you see.
What are some changes of state?
evaporation
boiling
condensation
Now that you've listed changes of state...
Work with your partner to determine which changes are caused by gaining energy
losing energy?
Warm Up 8
Physical and Chemical Changes
List 3 qualities that indicate a physical change has occurred. List 3 for a chemical change.
physical changes:
chemical changes:
bubbles
changes of state
heating
dissolving
formation of a solid (precipitate)
change in color
Old Stuff
(Not for fall 2015)

DA: Dimensional Analysis
With your group, please
make 1 dollar
out of each set of coins.
Discuss
with your group if the dimes and the the nickels measure the same thing? (are they the same amount of money?)
Now, please write a mathematical relationship to show this.
1.
10 dimes
20 nickels
20 nickels
10 dimes
Do these 2 fractions equal the same thing?
Did you write?
10 dimes = 20 nickels
Conversion factors change something to different version of form.
What is a factor?
Something that brings results or a cause.
What's a conversion?
The action of changing the "version" of a thing.
Let's think about this in math...(think: algebra)
A conversion factor is used to convert a measured quantity.
10 dimes
to a different unit of measure
100 pennies
without changing the relative amount.
What's the amount?
100 cents
How do we do this?
ratio
ways to write ratios?
part: part
A fraction!
(that equals 1)
What's a ratio?
part
whole
part
part
Two types of ratios are:
part: part
or
a ratio is just...
From above...our conversion factors for dimes to nickels in 1 dollar is really just a set of proportions...
check it out...
They equal the same thing because each fraction equals the amount of 1 (dollar).
How many seconds are there in 3 days?
days
seconds
How do we get from days to seconds?
3 days
minutes
hours
x
24 hours
1 day
How many hours in 1 day?
24 hours = 1 day
What are the two conversion factors for this conversion?
24 hours
1 day
1 day
24 hours
Which one do I use?
x
60 minutes
1 hour
1 minute
60 seconds
x
=
259, 200 seconds
DA: Dimensional Analysis
5. How many seconds are there in 2.5 hours?
(see whiteboard )
Do numbers 6 and 7 on your own.
Important dimensional analysis note:
on top = multiply
bottom = divide
Just like fractions
What is this?
Can't you just cancel out the 3s?
3
3 x 5
They're just division...remember fractions by pizza?
1
5
Important dimensional analysis note:
on top = multiply
bottom = divide
Just like fractions
What is this?
Can't you just cancel out the 3s?
3
3 x 5
They're just division...remember fractions by pizza?
1
5
Rules of Figs...Sig Figs, That is!
1. any # not zero = a significant figure
2. zeros between any non-zero #
3. zeros at the end of a number and to the right of a decimal point are always significant
Who's significant?
43.00 1.010 9.000
4 sig figs
Struggling? change the # to scientific notation
Significant Figures
62/41 = 1.512195122
ugly!
How many #s do I round to?
answer already answered by #s you divided in the first place.
62 = 2 sig figs
41 = 2 sig figs
round answer to 2 figures
1.5
How did I know 62 and 41 had 2 significant figures?
Sig Figs - dem zeros
decimal, to right and at the end = significant,
to the left of the decimal = not
extraneous zeros are eliminated with scientific notation
make me a sandwich (of zeros) = zeros between other numbers = significant
How to remember if they're significant or not...
d =
e =
m=
pennies
10 dimes =
100 pennies
part:whole
What is the ratio of girls to boys in the class?
date:
3. Write a conversion factor for...
Dimes and quarters in 1 dollar
Seconds in 1 minute
days in 1 year
Please write two conversion factors for each
years in 1 decade
decades in 1 century
10 dimes
4 quarters
4 quarters
10 dimes
60 seconds
1 minute
1 minute
60 seconds
365 days
1 year
1 year
365 days
1 decade
10 years
10 years
1 decade
10 decades
1 century
1 century
10 decades
4. Criss Cross Applesauce! (need your colored pencils)
How many seconds are there in 1 hour?
Step 1: Write the value you're starting with
Step 2: Write all the conversion steps you need.
Step 3: Write the conversions you will need
Step 4: For each conversion, write the two possible conversion factors possible.
Step 5: Choose the correct conversion factor for each step and write it. Remember you're trying to cancel out units so you want the bottom one to be the same unit as the unit on top to its left.
Step 6: Use criss cross appleauce to solve. Multiply the top first, then the bottom. Remember not to multiply all the way across and then try to do all the division at the end.
Step 7: Write your answer with the correct number of significant figures. Scientific notation eliminates extraneous zeros.
1 hour
hours
minutes
seconds
Steps 3-4:
hours
minutes
1 hour
60 minutes
60 minutes
1 hour
minutes
seconds
1 minute
60 seconds
60 seconds
1 minute
x
1 hour
60 minutes
x
1 minute
60 seconds
=
3,600 seconds
1 x 60 / 1 x 60 / 1
1 hour = 60 minutes
1 minute = 60 seconds
We will go over sig figs later.
5. How many seconds are there in 2.5 hours?
2.5 hours
hours
minutes
seconds
x
60 minutes
1 hour
x
60 seconds
1 minute
=
2.5 times 60 divided by 1 x 60 divided by 1
hours
minutes
minutes
seconds
1 hour = 60 minutes
1 minute = 60 seconds
1 hour
60 minutes
60 minutes
1 hour
1 minute
60 seconds
60 seconds
1 minute
9,000 seconds
1,000,000
.00001
.00000001
kilo
1,000
hecta
100
deca
10
10
10
0
1
meter (m)
liter (L)
deci
gram (g)
Base Units and SI Units are the same thing.
Don't be confused...
.1
.01
.001
centi
10
3
10
2
1
10
-1
10
-2
10
-3
10
10
10
10
10
Each unit is 10x larger than the unit below it.
Quick check: Do you know what the metric prefixes mean?
milli
the measured distance
from one side to another
meter
m
ruler, meterstick
10
tenths
ones
tenths
hundreths
6.53 cm
Does your number in the hundredths place have to be the same as mine?
No, because it's the estimated digit.
the amount of space a substance or
an object occupies
liter
L
graduated cylinder
But, remember not to pick up the graduated cylinder, lower yourself to the meniscus, not bring the meniscus to you!
Because of the parallax effect, you should always read volume measurements from eye level and take the measurement at the bottom of the meniscus.
ones
tenths
36.5
meniscus
Remember, the values are getting bigger going up a graduated cylinder because you fill it from the bottom.
a measure of the number of atoms
in an object combined with the density of those atoms
gram
g
balance (triple beam or analytical)
tens
ones
tenths
hundredths
Notes:
if something is in italics, you don't have to write it.
Students will demonstrate a thorough understanding of laboratory safety by completing the lab safety contract and scoring 100% on the lab safety quiz (online).
Students will become familiar with the 3 basic types of measuring instruments (ruler, graduated cylinder, and analytical balance) by completing the guided inquiry to measurement including significant digits on the back side of their metrics system foldable.

Students will become familiar with the metric system by taking notes about the prefixes and their meanings on their Metrics System Foldable. Understanding of the meaning of the metric system prefixes will be demonstrated by the correct completion of Aww vs Ouch on the foldable.
Learning Targets:
How to Science!
Density Day!
My Packing Dilemma
When my souvenirs are packed into my suitcase, did they increase the mass of the suitcase?
Yes
Did the volume of the suitcase increase?
No, the suitcase didn't get any bigger magically.
Is the suitcase more or less dense?
More dense
If we add more mass to the same volume, what happens to the density of the object?
Adding more mass to the same volume increases the density.
Destructive Habits
On your paper, cross out styrofoam and replace it with birdseed.
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