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The Federal Court System
Transcript of The Federal Court System
Jurisdiction is the
authority to hear and decide a case
. There are different types of jurisdiction.
jurisdiction - the
to hear a case
jurisdiction - cases that fall under
state and federal jurisdiction
jurisdiction - the court that
hears a case
jurisdiction - any court that hears a case at a
created a federal court system alongside each state's court system.
hear the vast
majority of cases
in the United States.
The state courts'
flow from state constitutions and laws.
The American Court System
The Constitution gives the
the power to
Senate must approve
the President considers when making a nomination
Approval of the Senate
Judiciary Act of 1789
This act fleshed out a three-tiered structure for the federal courts.
The three tiers were:
Courts of Appeals
Checks and Balances
is the power of the Supreme Court to determine if a law or executive action is Constitutional.
Judicial review is the
The Federal Court System
Most federal judges have been
American Bar Association
issues reports on the
These courts are spread
because there is one for every state.
These courts have
over nearly all
criminal and civil cases
There are 94 judicial districts
89 in the 50 states
one in Washington D.C., Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, and N. Mariana Islands
of the courts
if a law has been broken and if penalties apply.
how to provide relief to those who have been harmed.
the meaning of a law or part of the Constitution itself.
A Dual Court System
Structure of the Federal Court System
the person making the legal complaint
- the person against whom the complaint is being filed
Court of Appeals
The Supreme Court
The Supreme Court is the
Since 1869, the Court has had a
chief justice and 8 associate justices
which cases it wants to hear.
Usually, the cases involve questions about the meaning on the Constitution or
On average, the Court hears about
100 cases a year
At first they were known as
because they had
no fixed location
Judges would travel from district to district to hear cases.
Judiciary Act of 1891
made these courts strictly
Courts of Appeals hear appeals from
12 circuits in the U.S.
Appointing Federal Judges
Presidents usually nominate judges who members of his/her political party.
Satisfies presidential supporters and is a part of the
because federal judges serve for life (
What is the judges' position between
Simply put, restraint is similar to
) of the Constitution.
Activism is similar to
construction of the Constitution.
The tradition of
plays a big role.
Since a senator from the same state as the nominee and the same political party as the president can block a nomination for any reason, the president usually consults with senators before making a nomination or nominate people the senators suggest.