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Transcript of Greenroof GEO501
Purpose of the research Green roof - types An extensive green roof has low lying plants designed to provide maximum groundcover, water retention, erosion resistance, and respirative transpiration of moisture. Extensive green roofs usually use plants with foliage from 2 to 6 inches and from 2 to 4 inches of soil.
An intensive green roof is intended to be more of a natural landscape, installed on a rooftop. Intensive green roofs may use plants with foliage from 1 to 15 feet and may require several feet of soil depth. Research Problem Studies focussing on construction of green roofs or their benefits...
Studies focussing on economics of green roofs...
"....a focus on developing smart tools for policy makers and developers is required"
(Taylor, 2007; City of Toronto, 2005) The intent of this research is to plan and develop a GIS-based decision-making support tool for policy-makers that will identify suitable sites for green roofs within a city and calculate the related benefits Purpose of Research 1. Considerations for Suitability Model
2. Identifying and Monetizing Benefits 1. Considerations for Suitability Model Building-use:
Residential, Commercial, Industrial, etc
Flat roofs 350-m2 of roof area
Lower roof slope (lower Curve Number) result in lower runoff
Acoustical benefits with low roof slope
Type of Green roof:
Residential vs commercial
Intensive ($$) vs extensive
2. Identifying and Monetizing Benefits Stormwater runoff is decreased
Impacts combine sewer overflow (CSO)
Stormwater treatment costs lowered
Hydrological Simulation Program (HSPF) or HYDRUS-1D
Improved air quality
reduction in Airborne particulate matter (pm)
reduction in Greenhouse gases (03, C02, No)
Urban heat island effect
air temperature lowered by 0.1 to 1.5 °F
Lowering energy demands
Green amenity spaces & Aesthetic impacts
Meaningful contact and access to nature/green space
Lowers stress, increase ability to focus, generate creative ideas
The tool will include two distinct portions: The suitability model and the benefit quantification model.
City of Buffalo is the case study
ESRI ArcGIS 9/10.x desktop applications and Microsoft VB.net.
Anticipated data layers
Land use and/or zoning
Building footprint and building height
Building-use or type
Watershed & Average precipitation data
Hydrological Simulation Program
Pollutant and erosion reduction benefit equations
Sustainable Drainage Systems Model (SUDS)
USDA Urban Forest Effects / Dry-Deposition model (UFORE-D)
Direct/Indirect Energy Savings (e.g cost of electricity ~$0.1017 per kWh)
Proposed Mock-up of ArcGIS Tool
Standardizing GIS data and rules for monetizing benefits across many cities
Tool needs to account for realistic expectations - # and acreage of green roofs
Follow-up research on outcomes of tool required
Greening a City: A GIS-based
decision-support tool Jenny Gnanendran - GEO501 Thank you.
Questions? References: Berndtsson, J (2010) Green roof performance towards management of runoff water quantity and
quality: A review, Ecological Engineering 36: 351- 360
Carter T, Rasmussen T (2006) Hydrologic Behavior of Vegetated Roofs, Journal of the American
Water Resources Association 42(5): 1261-1274
City of Chicago (2008), A Guide to Rooftop Gardening, Prepared by Chicago Department of
City of Toronto (2005) Report on the Environmental Benefits and Costs of Green Roof
Technology for the City of Toronto, October 2005.
Fang, C (2008) Evaluating the thermal reduction effect of plant layers on rooftops, Energy and
Getter K, Rowe, D, Jeffery A (2007) Quantifying the effect of slope on extensive green roof
stormwater retention, Ecological Engineering 31: 225-231
Kothner, K (2008) The new guideline for planning and upkeep of green roof sites, Federation of
green roof assciations, EFB, Conference Budapest 2008 proceedings
Renterghem T, Botteldooren D (2009) Reducing the acoustical façade load from road traffic with
green roofs, Building and Environment 44: 1081-1087
Rosenweig C, et al (2005) Mitigating New York City’s Heat Island with Urban Forestry, Living
Roofs and Light Surfaces, Environmental Hazards 6: 51-62
Takebayshi H, Moriyama M (2007) Surface heat budget on green roof and high reflection roof for
mitigation of urban heat island, Building and environment 42: 2971-2979
Taylor, D (2007) Growing Green Roofs, City by City, Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol.
115, No. 6: A306-311
Velasquez, L (2005), Organic Green Roof Architecture: Design Considerations and System
Components, Environmental Quality Management/summer 2005. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Yang J, Yu Q, Gong P (2008) Quantifying air pollution removal by green roofs in Chicago,
Atmospheric Environment 42: 7266-7223