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U.S. Education System
Transcript of U.S. Education System
U.S. Education System
This PREZI will present these topics:
Structure of U.S. Schools (PreK-12th grade)
Type of Schools (Public and Private)
Funding & Control of Schools
Educational Policy Creation
Key Terms at School
: preschool; ages ~3-5; not provided for all; not required; focus on social skills
: kindergarten; age ~5; mostly universal; few areas require; focus on "school readiness"
: grades 1st-5th (sometimes 8th); ages ~6-10; most states require from age 6 or 7
Middle School (or Junior High)
: grades 6th or 7th-8th; ages ~11-13; required
: grades 9th-12th (freshman, sophomore, junior, senior); ages ~14-17; most states require education through age 16 or 17
Structure of Schools
~90% of students
FREE - no tuition
Governed by a School Board (elected officials)
Charter schools are also public schools
~4% of U.S. students go to charter schools
Charter schools receive some public funding; they usually have more autonomy (not connected to school districts)
~50% of private schools are Catholic "parochial" schools
Types of Schools
Well-funded districts receive funds from high local property taxes.
States fund from 32-89% of schools' budgets.
The federal government funds ~9% of schools' budgets on average.
Funds dispersed through "Elementary and Secondary Education Act" (ESEA), originally created as part of War on Poverty, in the 1960s.
ESEA is up for renewal every 6 years (but the U.S. government has not taken action since 2001).
Title I provides funds for schools that serve "low-income" students.
Title III provides funds for non-native English speakers.
Funding and Control
: Elementary and Secondary Education Act
: No Child Left Behind (current iteration of ESEA)
: Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (http://idea.ed.gov)
: Individualized Education Program
EL or ELL
: English Learner / English Language Learner (students who are emerging bilinguals, but need assistance with English language development; usually children of immigrants)
: English as a Second Language (course ELs usually take)
How should we structure education to get to where we want to go?
By age / grades?
By increased testing?
By group collaboration?
With more divergent thinking?
With more rigorous material?
With sports only as a hobby?
Can Charter Schools improve student achievement?
Charter schools are public schools, but they are not run by districts.
Student achievement is HIGH at some, but LOW at others.
The development of education in the U.S. is created through a "
loosely coupled system:
Local policies and Boards of Education
Funding incentives: e.g., states receive more "points" for federal funding projects if they adopt "Common Core" standards
Court cases: an example is described in the video on "Lau vs. Nichols," a case that shaped bilingual education in the U.S.