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Yr11- Energy Systems & Fitness Components

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Melinda Pearson

on 14 December 2016

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Transcript of Yr11- Energy Systems & Fitness Components

Water Polo,
Energy Systems
Fitness Components

If glycogen stores are low, the predominant fuel will be fats.

This requires more O2 to produce same amount of ATP energy production slows “hitting the wall”

Progressive overload

Training Principles

For a training session to be effective, it should consist of a number of important elements:

Structuring a training session
When you perform any physical activity all three energy systems are contributing energy to ATP re-synthesis.

Their relative contributions depend on the intensity and duration of the activity.
Relationship between the systems

When CP stores depleted, energy production & work output decreases.
The Aerobic system resynthesises Creatine Phosphate stores

Glucose + O2 Energy + CO2
+ H2O + Heat

Energy + C + P CP
Energy released from breakdown of Creatine Phosphate (CP) to
re-synthesise ATP

CP supplies are exhausted after approx 10 sec of high intensity exercise (e.g. shot put; 100m sprint; volleyball serve)

ATP-PC System

All energy for muscle contraction comes
from the breakdown of
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)

ATP ADP + P + energy (used for muscle contraction)

Once ATP is broken down, the body must resynthesise more ATP – requires energy

Energy Production

How is energy produced in the body?

Watch the short video for an introduction to how energy is produced in the body

What do you know about Energy?

Lactic Acid System
(Anaerobic Glycolysis)
Anaerobic capacity (anaerobic fitness) is the ability to produce energy in the absence of O2.

This occurs when there is inadequate O2 supply to muscles and/or food sources cannot be broken down quickly enough

Anaerobic Energy

Aerobic capacity (aerobic fitness) is the ability to produce energy aerobically (with O2).

Aerobic energy production occurs continuously (at rest & during exercise) through breakdown of glucose

Aerobic Energy

400m sprint (athletics)
1500m swim
Gymnastics vault
15 minutes rock climbing
Javelin throw
1 minute of boxing
Aerobics routine
Single platform dive
Water Polo match (Goalie)
Water Polo match (field player)

Place the following activities on the continuum according to the dominant energy system:

Year 11
Term 4

Water polo is one of the most physically demanding of all team games, requiring top performers to cover up to 3km in the pool during a 1 hour game.

This is on top of the physical contact, both above and below the surface of the water that players must endure.

Energy comes from the breakdown of the food & drink we consume in the form of Carbohydrates, Fats & Proteins

Energy production can either occur aerobically (with O2) or anaerobically (without O2)

Energy system used depends on:
Duration of exercise
Intensity of exercise
Individual fitness level
Carbohydrates (CHO) are the primary source of fuel for energy production

CHO Glucose used in energy production
CHO Glycogen stored in muscle
Excess CHO stores converted to fat
Fats are a secondary source of fuel. They are converted to glucose & used for energy production
Proteins are only used in extreme conditions (starvation or extreme duration activities)
Glucose + O2 Energy + CO2 + H2O + Heat

Energy used to re-synthesise ATP

Energy + ADP + P ATP
Aerobic energy is essential in submaximal sports
(e.g. middle & long-distance running, swimming & cycling)

Unlimited energy source if food is consumed
Aerobic System limitations:

Cannot respond to rapid changes in energy requirements

Short duration, maximal energy production
(e.g. 100m sprint; triple jump; tackle)

ATP-CP System

Rapid increase in energy demand
(e.g. tennis serve; short netball drive)

Lactic Acid System

Sustained high-energy demands
(e.g. running, swimming etc below sprint speed but higher than sub-maximal efforts)

Lactic Acid System
During intense physical activity, there are 3 different anaerobic energy scenarios:
CP Energy + C + P

Energy used to
re-synthesise ATP

Energy + ADP + P ATP
Replenishing Creatine Phosphate takes 5-6 min recovery so the shortfall is taken up by Lactic Acid system
Creatine Phosphate System limitations:

It can only produce energy for very short periods of time before the energy supply is exhausted
Provides energy for high intensity exercise for 60-80 seconds

Also utilised when the aerobic energy system is already at
maximal capacity
(e.g. 400m swimmer giving maximum effort in final 2 laps)

Lactic Acid System limitations:

Rapid fatigue if the system is used for longer than 45 secs
Lactate is broken down further to release additional energy to
re-synthesise ATP

If the rate of lactate production is greater than its use as an energy source Lactic Acid is produced
Energy is released from breakdown of Glycogen (without O2)

Glucose Energy + Lactate + Heat

Energy used to resynthesise ATP
Energy + ADP + P ATP
Health-related Components of Fitness
Components of Fitness required to maintain health and general lifestyle fitness
Muscular Endurance
The ability to sustain repeated muscular contractions over an extended period

E.g. canoeing, distance swimming, jogging, rock climbing

Relies on a combination of aerobic energy & lactic acid energy production, depending on the frequency & intensity of muscle contractions
The range of movement
around a joint

Can be increased by stretching

E.g. gymnastics, hurdling, high jump, dancing

Body Composition
The amount and percentage of fat, muscle, bone & fluid in your body

A higher level of fat/muscle may be an advantage or disadvantage in some sports
Aerobic Capacity
Ability to produce energy aerobically (without oxygen) for long periods

Most important component of fitness - the foundation of all other fitness components

Also known as ‘endurance’; ‘stamina’; ‘heart-lung fitness’

Muscular Strength
The ability to exert a maximal force.
The ability to perform an action that requires large amounts of force.

E.g. weightlifting, gripping a bat, tackling in rugby, throwing events, jostling for position in water polo

Sport-Specific Fitness Components
Specifically related to, or necessary for a sport or skill

Evident in athletes who excel at certain types of sports

E.g. strength & coordination needed for water polo
The ability to contract muscles quickly to perform a movement.

Requires anaerobic energy

Training improves efficiency & timing of nerve impulses.

E.g. sprinting, tennis serve, javelin throw, shot at goal in water polo

The ability to perform specific movements smoothly & accurately

Require limbs to move in the right direction at the right time

E.g. foot-eye coordination – soccer, AFL
hand-eye coordination – tennis, softball, water polo

The ability to be stable or in control of body position while stationary (static balance) or moving (dynamic balance)

E.g. gymnastics, surfing, cycling
Muscular Power
The ability to use strength quickly to produce an explosive effort.

Combination of strength & speed.
Rely on phosphate energy production.

E.g. basketball rebound, volleyball spike, throwing events, goal kicking

The ability to accurately & rapidly change body position.

Affected by flexibility, balance, coordination & muscular speed

E.g. team sports, boxing, wrestling, dance

Components ofFitness
Fitness can mean different things to different people.

Some components of fitness are necessary for general health (
components of fitness)

Some components of fitness are required for different sports.
components of fitness)

Factors affecting muscular endurance
contraction intensity
muscle fibre types
blood supply to the muscles
ability to produce aerobic energy
lactic acid tolerance
Factors affecting flexibility
type of joint
resting length of the muscles
resting length of ligaments & joint capsules
body build
muscle & joint temperatures
High aerobic fitness allows:

Higher rate of energy production
Improved recovery after exercise by assisting in removal of Lactic Acid (important in interval-based sports)
Most team sports require Aerobic Fitness as a base so players can recover more quickly from high-intensity efforts.

Use in activities such as distance running, swimming, surfing, cycling
Factors affecting strength
recruitment of muscle fibres
cross-sectional area of a muscle
muscle fibre type (slow twitch vs fast twitch)
Factors affecting speed
energy production
muscle fibre type
duration of the activity
speed of transmission of nerve impulses
Research the different playing positions in Water Polo

For each position, write a short summary of their role in a game (i.e. playing demands)
Write 200-250 words to evaluate how the different energy systems are utilised by the body during a water polo match

Prepares the body to perform & minimises injury risk.
Should mimic the actions performed in the training session.

Should increase heart rate and blood flow to the muscles


Train skill and/or fitness.

When training skill and fitness, one aspect will generally be more important. This should be trained early in the session when fresh.


Duration & activities will depend on the skill and/or conditioning performed during the session

Higher intensity =
longer warm-down
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