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Energy Sources

This presentation looks at the different types of energy sources .

Sam Watson

on 22 October 2015

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Transcript of Energy Sources

Energy Sources
Different types of energy sources
In this presentation we will be showing you all of the possible energy sources, both renewable to non- renewable.
Non-renewable energy sources
Non-renewable means that a certain source is unable to renew it self in the Average life time (80 years). These energy Sources are fossil fuels that were formed over millions of years.
Coal is an energy source that has formed from plant matter over millions of years making it a non-renewable energy source. It can be found in most countries of the world. It has to be mined in two different ways depending on how far under the earths surface it is. Over the years their has been many efficiency improvements for coal to electricity production. This includes grinding it more and they have made it less polluting than other fossil fuel electricity production. Unfortunately it is not renewable.
Oil/Diesel Power
Oil is also a non-renewable fossil fuel and is sourced from underground. Like coal it has been made up over millions of years from plant and animal matter. Oil is mainly found under the sea especially the northern seas. It is also located in a few other countries such as Venezuela, Syria, Russia and other countries.
Nuclear Power
Nuclear power is generated using uranium and sometimes plutonium. Uranium is made by natural occurrence that happens in low concentrations within soil, rock, and water. it has to be mined and is usually mined in open pit mines. It is sourced mainly from Australia but it is also sourced in about thirteen other countries around the world. Unfortunately it is not a renewable energy source.
Natural gas
Natural Gas is yet another Non-renewable Fossil Fuel energy source. Their are two main types of Natural Gas and they are Conventional and unconventional. When used to generate electricity Natural Gas produces less than half the carbon emissions of coal. Natural gas is located all around the world and is sourced using traditional well drilling techniques.
Unfortunately all of these energy sources are quite expensive and will run out one day unlike renewable energy. That is why it is better to look at renewable energy solutions because they won't run out and can save a large amount of money.
Renewable Energy
Biomass is material made from living and recently living organisms. it can be both plant or animal derived. Biomass is a renewable energy source because organisms are always letting off waste and dying. Biomass can be sourced from everywhere that has living or recently living organisms. This makes it a renewable source that can be used everywhere, unlike most others renewable energy sources.
Geothermal energy originates from natural processes beneath the earth’s surface, and is recovered as steam and hot water. Underground the hot rocks heat water that produces steam. This steam is then accessed by drilling and exploration. The steam is then purified and used to drive turbines and electric generators. Geothermal Energy is classed as a renewable energy source.
Tidal/Wave Power
Hydroelectric power
Hydroelectric power is created when water is stored and then released or when water is constantly going through. The power from the water builds up as it goes further down stream this pushes turbines that convert the kinetic energy into mechanical energy which is later converted into electrical energy.
Renewable sources are more reliable energy sources because they will not run out and they are a more environmentally friendly option which can save money.
By Sam Watson
Estimated time until fossil fuels run out when accounting for population and increased usage.
To produce electricity Coal is first crushed into small pieces an then burnt converting the chemical energy to heat energy. It then heats water that turns into steam which expands in the pipes making pressure. The pressure then pushes a steam turbine that is connected to a turbine generator which when the turbine spins, so does the generator(creating mechanical energy). The generator uses an electromagnetic field to convert this mechanical energy into electrical energy. The water is then cooled and used again whilst the electrical energy is transformed in a transformer.
Large amount of pollution.
Health concerns from the pollution
It is the most plentiful Fossil Fuel.
It is less expensive than other fossil fuels.
It can be changed into many forms.
Transformation Process
It is considered easy to handle, store and transport
It is easier to extract from the ground than coal.
Creates jobs
Oil spills in transportation.
Emits large amounts of carbon dioxide (20pounds/1Gallon of Gasoline).
Conversion Process
Uranium is a highly radioactive material it needs to be dug up and then processed which creates a huge amount of waste in the process. Before uranium can be used in nuclear reactors it has to be enriched. Nuclear reactors generate heat through a process of nuclear fission. The steam generated from this heat drives turbines and generators just like a Coal power plant.
Countries can rely less on fossil fuels.
It is considered to be one of the more cost effective alternatives to fossil fuels.
The energy output is great.
Excavation of Uranium and plutonium causes devastation to surrounding environment.
the Waste from these excavations is radioactive and if not stored correctly can contaminate ground water and other parts of the environment.
If harmful radioactive materials are released, this could cause tremendous negative impacts on the health of people, plants and animals around mines and nuclear plants
Conversion Process
Gas is considered a very clean and safe fossil fuel.
Produces half the by products when used to make electricity.
It is also economical as building times for gas power stations are considerably shorter than other sources.
Numerous environmental impacts arise from gas exploration.
Natural gas is still a non renewable resource.
Dangers include explosions and oil spills and from this ocean habitats can be disturbed.
In the conversion process Gas is first mixed with air and then burnt causing combustion gas to expand making a pressure build up in pipes. this then pushes a turbine that converts the heat energy to mechanical energy which is converted to electricity in a converter.
The heat still remains and is used to heat pipes of water causing a pressure build up from the steam. the pressure is then let out and pushes a turbine that also converts the heat energy to mechanical energy. This energy is then converted to electricity in a converter. The steam is cooled, this makes water that is used again.
• Tides go in and out twice a day. So it is reliable and easy to predict, it’s also easy to manage positive spikes in energy.
• It’s completely renewable
• It produces no emissions
Tidal power stations only generate electricity when the tide is flowing in or out (ten hours a day).
• Widespread environmental and ecological damage to the aquatic ecosystem.
• Equipment can be damaged by the strong currents and freak waves.
Tidal and wave power are much the same in the concept that they both have to spin turbines to generate electricity. Tidal relies on turbines the spin as the tide moves in and out . Another type of tidal energy is tidal barrages that work much the same as a hydroelectric power plant except they are larger and have a lot more environmental impact. Wave power relies on the movement of a device to power a turbine. Wave energy devices are best used along western coastlines because the largest, most consistent winds come from the west. while the tidal devices are best used in very strong tidal zones.
Diesel Generation power
Utilising waste materials to produce energy reduces the impact that their treatment or disposal of would otherwise have on the environment.
The fuel tends to be cheap.
Places less demand on the Earth’s resources.
Collecting the waste in sufficient quantities can be difficult.
Fuel is still being burnt so this is still generating greenhouse gases.
Not efficient compared to fuel fossil.
Geothermal energy does not produce any pollution, and does not contribute to the greenhouse effect.
Power stations do not have much impact on the environment.
No fuel is needed.
A negative aspect of geothermal energy concerns geography and geology as to where power stations can be located.
There are not many regions where a geothermal plant can be built as hot rocks of a suitable type, at a suitable depth need to be found.
Hazardous gases and minerals may come up from underground, and can be difficult to safely dispose of.
The process starts as a combustion takes place inside the diesel engine, this energy is then used to drive pistons. The mechanical energy of the pistons is designed to rotate a rod that goes into the generator. The main responsibility of the diesel generator is to convert this mechanical energy into usable electric energy. this is usually achieved by spinning a small arm that is attached to a coil of wire. The wire then spins inside magnets of opposite charges. This forces the electrons through the wire which creates a current. Soon when the electricity is flowing, the outlets located on the unit are provided power. Diesel generators are commonly used as backups power sources for hospitals,fire stations,police station and some businesses as well as being main power sources for off grid camping sites.
It is cheap because existing hydroelectric plants can produce electricity at a low cost although newly built plant are quite a bit more expensive per KWh they are still a low price
Hydroelectric power is constant as it is generated by moving water, this takes advantage of the constant water flow in rivers and other waterways.
Hydroelectric power is clean because it uses water as its fuel, this means no harmful emissions or chemicals are released into the air or water.
Low water levels and droughts can negatively impact the amount of electricity generation capacity. These low levels can also effect the surrounding habitats.
Water storing power plants have high capital costs due to the construction of the dam which uses large amounts of concrete.
Water storing power plants can prevent fish from moving upstream and down stream safely. fish ladder have been put in to allow fish movement.
Wind Power
Solar power is also a renewable energy
source and probably the most practical
for the school as it doesn't use much space
and will produce power almost everyday. Of course solar panels are most effective in direct, intense sunlight so the aren't suitable for all countries.
How it works
The history of solar
Solar energy production can be in mass and minor scale.
Their is a slight environmental impact when constructing large panels.
The cost of using solar energy is much higher than using fossil fuels.
The panels only work in the daytime.
Large scale power stations are expensive to build and don't have a very large output.
Large areas of land are required to capture the suns energy.
Solar energy is renewable.
Solar energy doesn't create pollution.
It is a very quiet energy option.
The cost is reducing due to larger production
Solar power has been around since the 7 th century B.C. Although it was harnessed using a magnifying glass and used to burn ants. Over the thousands of years it has developed to become advanced enough to make electricity.
To put it simply a P.V. solar panel is made up of many small solar cells. Each of these solar cell uses light to make electricity through the use of Atoms and electrons that are transformed into positively charged electrons. This is the converted into useable electricity through the use of an inverter.
First solar collectors placed on roofs absorb the sun’s rays, they convert them into heat and then transfer the heat to a heat-transfer fluid which is usually made up of a glycol and water mixture. The heat-transfer fluid is then pumped into a heat exchanger that is located inside the water storage tank, this is where it heats the water.After releasing its heat via the heat exchanger, the heat-transfer fluid then flows back to the collectors where the process starts again. This is all conducted through a controller that circulates the heat fluid when heat is available. It also controls if and when a boiler will need to kick in to heat the water when the solar system isn't producing enough heat.
There are two main types of solar power the are solar thermal (The type used to make Hot water) and photovoltaic (P.V. the type used to create electricity.
Wind power is a renewable energy option that would be a great option for the school as we are situated in the very windy West Coast of Tasmania. Wind power can also be harnessed in larger and smaller amounts depending on the size of the turbine.
The history of Wind Power
People have been harnessing the winds energy as far back as 5000 B.C. to power boats along the Nile River and by 200 B.C. the chinese had made simple windmills to pump water. In the 11 th century people in the middle east were using the windmills extensively for food production.
How wind power works
It's not always windy.
It is renewable.
It doesn't generate pollution.
Turbines can generate enough energy for larger numbers of people simply by using larger turbines.
Wind energy can only be stored with a battery.
Possible Noise Pollution
Wind turbines harness the winds kinetic energy and turn it into useable electrical energy. The process starts when the wind hits the turbines angled propellers causing them to spin. A shaft and gearbox connect the rotor to a generator so when the rotor spins so does the generator. The generator uses an electromagnetic field to convert the mechanical energy into useable electrical energy. the turbines also have sensors so that the blades can point into the wind to maximize electricity production.
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