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Growth & Development in Toddlers

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Joaldy Gutierrez

on 11 November 2014

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Transcript of Growth & Development in Toddlers

Growth & Development of Toddlers
Principles of Human Behaviour
Learning values, knowledge, and skills that allows children to relate to others and positively contribute

Construction of thought processes including remembering, problem solving and decision making

Development of expression, understanding, and regulation of emotions learned through experiences

Growth of the body allows for the development of gross motor skills, and movement of the whole body
Social Characteristics
Emotional Characteristics
Separation anxiety
Develop a range of emotions (ex. may have tantrums, show aggression by biting, etc)
Begins to develop self-esteem
Rapid mood shifts
Toddler might show affection by giving their doll a kiss or hug (Develops empathy)
Physical Characteristics
Physical growth slows down, but there is steady increase of growth (approximately 7.5cm/year) & a weight gain ( average amount of 5lb/year)
Toddler Lordosis
Children begin to walk at different ages, with most beginning to walk by 15 months and climbing stairs by 18 months
Brain growth continues, reaching 80-90% of adult size by the age of three
Decline in appetite and erratic eating habits referred to as physiologic anorexia
Gains control over bladder & bowel movements
Stable cardiopulmonary system:
Heart Rate: 70-110bpm
BP: 90/55 mmHg
Respiratory: 20-30 breaths/ minute
Average amount of sleep is 10-13 hours a day
Sleep disturbances: refusal, nightmares, nightime feeding
Ages: 1-3 years

Principles of human behaviour

Health & Well-being

Stages of Development
Theorists: Jean Piaget and Erik Erikson

Communication in toddlers


Strong attachment to parents
Pursuit of independence
Developing autonomy
Toddlers express negative emotions if their independence is threatened
Engage in solitary play and later in parallel play
Imitate others
Favourite word is "No"
Cognitive Characteristics
Health & Well-Being

Development of motor skills and curiosity can lead to dangerous situations
Malnutrition & obesity
Bladder infection
Head lice and scabies
Ear Infections
Hand-foot-and-mouth disease
Mental Health
Autism spectrum disorder
Attention deficit/hyperactive disorder
Erik Erikson
Expanded on Freud's theories
Looked at each stage of development as pass or fail. If you fail to complete a stage of development you will struggle with your development as an individual and see the world differently
Stages of Social Development:

Autonomy vs. sense of shame and doubt:
As the toddler gains trust in his parents, his environment and their way of life, they begin to discover that their behaviour is their own (realization of will)
Ex. Erikson believe that learning to control one's bodily functions leads to a feeling of control and a sense of independence.
If children are criticized, overly controlled, or not given the opportunity to assert themselves, they may become overly dependent upon others, lack self-esteem, and feel a sense of shame or doubt in their own abilities.
Use empathetic guidance
Jean Piaget
Jean Piaget, a Swiss philosopher and biologist that studied how an individual develops cognition throughout their life by addressing how they think, reason, perceive and make meaning of the world.
Sensorimotor Stage:
Stage 4: Coordination of Secondary Reactions:

Learns object permanence
Begins to purposefully engage with the world and act with intention
Begin to understand the consequences of particular actions
Stage 5: Tertiary Circular Reactions:
Experimental observations of the effects of different actions, called trial and error
"A little scientist"
Stage 6: Mental Combination:
Imitating the behaviours of others
Think about actions and their consequences before acting on them
Preoperational Stage:
Preconceptual Period:
They can represent objects and actions in memory through symbols such as words, numbers and mental pictures
Stage of curiosity
Pretend play
Language Development:
12-18 months:
Toddler begins to combine two words
18-22 words vocabulary
Mixes real words with jargon and gestures
Recognizes some body parts by name
18-24 months:
270-300 words vocabulary
Understands more complex sentences
Uses two-three word sentences
Able to follow two consecutive related directions such as, "pick up the ball and give it to me"
24-36 months:
900 words vocabulary
Begins combining words in short sentences
Stuttering is common
Speech is understandable approximately 50-60% of the time
Communication with a Toddler in a Clinical Setting
Compliment the child's hair, toy, their outfit or their growth to "break the ice" this allows the toddler to feel at ease

The toddler may be difficult to examine as they may not like being separated from their caregivers and may fear invasive procedures

Toddler should be sitting up on the caregiver's lap and undressed by them if needed

Make sure you are at the child's eye level

Use clear, quiet and slow communication, including particular words, actions or objects for better understanding

Toddlers prefer to respond "No" to everything, so do not give them the choice to make important calls, however they like having autonomy therefore whenever possible give them a choice.

Demonstrate procedures on the parent or if possible use toys, such as dolls or teddy bears to decrease fear

Painful or frightening procedures should be left to last

Praise the child when they are co-operative (verbally or through treats)


American Academy of Pediatrics. (2013). Ages & Stages. Retrieved October 20, 2014 from http://www.healthychildren.org/English/ages-stages/toddler/Pages/Emotional-Development-2-Year-Olds.aspx.

Berkowitz, C. (2000). Talking to Children. In Pediatrics: A primary care approach (2nd ed., pp. 7-9). Philadelphia: Saunders.
Brown, S. (2014). Physical Development. Retrieved October 20, 2014 from http://babyparenting.about.com/od/parentingglossary/g/Physical-Development.htm

Children's Mental Health Ontario. (2014). Mental Health: The Basics. Retrieved October 20, 2014 from http://www.kidsmentalhealth.ca/children_youth/introduction.php.

Children's Therapy & Family Resource Centre. (2011). Toddler Developmental Milestones.
Retrieved October 20, 2014 from http://www.kamloopschildrenstherapy.org/social-emotional-toddler-milestones.

Encyclopedia of Children's Health. (2014). Cognitive Development. Retrieved October 20, 2014 from http://www.healthofchildren.com/C/Cognitive-Development.html.

HeretoHelp. (2009). Mental Development in Children and Youth. Retrieved October 20, 2014 from http://www.heretohelp.bc.ca/sites/default/files/images/ChildrenYouth_

James, S., Ashwill, J., & Droske, S. (2002). Special Considerations in Caring for Children. In Nursing Care of Children (2nd ed., p. 228). Philadelphia: W.B Saunders Company.

James, S., Ashwill, J., & Droske, S. (2002). Health Promotion for the School-Age Child. In Nursing Care of Children (2nd ed., pp. 153-160). Philadelphia: W.B Saunders Company.

Jarvis, C. (2009). Approach to the Clinical Setting. In Physical Examination & Health Assessment (1st ed., p. 145). Toronto: Elsevier Canada.

Jarvis, C. (2009). Physical Examination & Health Assessment (1st ed., pp. 17-18). Toronto: Elsevier Canada.

Kaneshiro, N. (2012). Daycare Health Risks. Retrieved October 20, 2014 from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001974.htm.

KidsHealth. (2014). Temper Tantrum. Retrieved October 20, 2014 from http://kidshealth.org/parent/emotions/behavior/tantrums.html#cat20446.

KidsMatter. (2008). About Social Development. Retrieved October 20, 2014 from https://www.kidsmatter.edu.au/families/about-friendship/social-development/social-development-children%E2%80%99s-social-development

Mandleco, B. (2004). Growth and Development of the Toddler. In Growth and Development Handbook (pp. 113-126). Clifton Park: Delmar Learning.

Odle, T. (2013). Emotional Development. Retrieved October 20, 2014 from http://www.education.com/reference/article/emotional-development/.

Piaget, J. (1964). Development and Learning. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 2(1), 176-186.

Piaget, J. (1952). The Fourth Stage: The Coordination of the Secondary Schemata. In The origins of intelligence in children; (pp. 247-253). New York: International Universities Press.

Piaget, J. (1952). The Sixth Stage: The invention of New Means Through Mental Combinations. In The origins of intelligence in children; (pp. 335-338). New York: International Universities Press.

Piaget, J. (1952). The Fifth Stage: The Tertiary Circular Reaction. In The origins of intelligence in children; (pp. 265-272). New York: International Universities Press.

Piaget, J. (1952). The concrete operations of thought. In The origins of intelligence in children; (pp. 103-120). New York: International Universities Press.

Piaget, J., & Inhelder, B. (1969). Sensori-motor Intelligence. In The psychology of the child (pp. 10-12). New York: Basic Books.

Potter, P. A., & Kerr, J. C. (2014). Canadian fundamentals of nursing (5th ed.). Toronto: Elsevier Mosby Canada.

Raising Kids to Health. (2012). Toddler's Health: What to Expect. Retrieved October 20, 2014 from http://raisingchildren.net.au/articles/toddlers_health_nutshell.html.

WebMD. (2011). Can toddlers be overweight? Retrieved October 20, 2014 from http://www.webmd.com/parenting/raising-fit-kids/weight/toddlers-overweight?page=2.

Zero to Three. (2014). Development of Social-Emotional Skills. Retrieved October 20, 2014 from http://www.zerotothree.org/child-development/social-emotional-development/social-emotional-development.html.
1. If a toddler shows signs of depression, what should the parent do and how would this affect their stages of development?

2. What would occur if there is too much independence given to the toddler?

3. What would occur if the toddler does not fulfill mental combination stage?
Groups objects according to specific characteristics (colour, size, shape etc)

Points to body parts when asked

Observe and imitate adult actions, for example pretending to drive a car

Plays make-believe with dolls, animals, and people

Attention span of 5 – 15 minutes at a time

Tries to obtain more information through ‘why’ and ‘what’ questions

Recognizes and identifies common objects and pictures by pointing
(James, 2000), (Jarvis, 2009), (Mandleco, 2004)
(James, 2000), (Jarvis, 2009), (Mandleco, 2004)
(Piaget, 1964), (Piaget, 1952), (Piaget, 1969), (Jarvis, 2009)
(Potter& Kerr, 2014, p.318)
(KidsMatter, 2014)
(Encyclopedia of Children’s Health, 2014)
(Olde, 2013)
(Brown, 2014)
(Potter & Kerr, 2014, p. 340)
(American Academy of Pediatrics, 2013)
(Potter & Kerr. 2014, p. 339-340 )
(Potter &Kerr, 2014, p. 340-341)
(Jarvis, 2009)
(HeretoHelp, 2009)
(KidsHealth, 2014)
(WebMD, 2011)
(Raising Kids to Help, 2012)
(Kaneshiro, 2012)
(James, 2000)
(Potter &Kerr, 2014, p. 318, 339)
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