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Gulf War

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Cherry-quinn Guo

on 4 October 2014

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Transcript of Gulf War

External influences
Social
Gulf War
Soe, Wenya, Ziting and Ek Hoe
Economic causes
What is the main cause
Economic
Political
External Influences
Political Causes
Overview
Ideological Causes
Ideological
28-30 May
Saddam Hussein declares high oil production of Kuwait as “economic warfare” against Iraq
15 July
Iraq accuses Kuwait of stealing oil from Iraq’s portion of Rumaila Oil Field and warns of military action
22 July
Iraq deploys troops to the Iraqi-Kuwaiti border and starts increasing military force
2 August
Iraq invades Kuwait
U.N. Security Council passes Resolution 660 demanding Iraq to withdraw from Kuwait immediately and unconditionally.
4 August
Kuwait under Iraqi control after Saddam Hussein declares victory over Kuwait
Saddam Hussein
Born in 1937
Iraqi President since 1979
Started and led Iraq through Iran-Iraq War
Rising Tensions
Social Causes
During Iran-Ira
q War, Iraq's
infrastructure
was

severely damaged.
Saddam
promised better living standards
but Iraqis' living standards actually worsened.
There was
social unrest
across Iraq. In November 1990, a massive student demonstration against the government took place in Basra, Mosul and Thawra of Baghdad.
1.5 million army: majority was Shi'te therefore
a threat to Saddam's power

As a result, Saddam wanted to start a new war to deploy his army in order to prevent coups caused by the army and distract Iraqis' discontent from the harsh living conditions.
After Iran-Iraq War, Iraq was severely damaged after that war,
184 billion USD
was spent on
reconstruction
of Iraq.
Kuwait: 8.2 billion USD, Saudi Arabia: 30.9 billion USD
Iraq
requested Kuwait to dissolve
the debt but Kuwait
did not grant
the request. This caused tensions. In the end, they still could not solve the financial situation.
Iraq requested
additional funds
which was approximately 30 billion USD and was rejected.

Historical Enmity

Iraq requested the reduction of oil from OPEC members so that it could generate
sufficient revenue
to settle the debts.
Oil production had been Iraqi's main source of revenue (it accounted for
more than 60 percent
of the country’s GDP and 95 percent of foreign currency earnings)
Only Kuwait increased its quota and
increased
the production of oil.
Effect: Iraq had suffered
losses
as the price of oil dropped. GDP per capita went from approximately $2304 in 1989 to $938 in 1990.
This caused even more tensions between the two countries as Kuwait had caused the inability of Iraq to settle its debts and subsequently recover from bankruptcy.

Both countries
shared a common history
In 1961, Kuwait was guaranteed independence by Britain, which was
not recognised by Iraq
Iraq
claimed Kuwait was a part of Iraq
and sent troops to capture it
Iraq gave up its claim due to pressure of other Arabian countries and the UK
Iraq used
military force to threaten Kuwait
sometimes
Kuwait deemed Iraq's action as
bullying
and this increased the conflicts between the 2 countries
Kuwait's infrastructure was damaged
Kuwaiti leader Sheikh Jaber al-Sabah
Emir
and the majority of the Kuwaiti royal family members had
fled to Saudi Arabia.
Emir's younger brother was killed.
Thousands of
foreigners
from the USA, UK and other western countries were held as
hostages
in Iraq

Iraq and Kuwait
shared
a profitable oilfield--the
Rumaila Oil Field
Iraq accused Kuwait of
stealing oil
using slant-drilling technology
Iraq demanded
USD2.4 billion as compensation
but Kuwait
refused
Iraq's port is too shallow for big ships to dock, so it is
hard to transport
of large quantities of
oil
Kuwait's 2 islands
, Budiyah and Warbah,
blocked off Iraq's access to the Gulf
, affecting Iraq's transportation of oil
Iraq
tried to claim the ownership
of these islands but
failed
Kuwait refused
to give in to Iraq's request to lease the islands and saw it as the start of tensions in 1978
Iraq saw its refusal as a
threat
to its national interest, which
led to conflicts between them
Oil Overproduction
Debts
Economic Causes
References
What are the causes of The Gulf War?
France and US aided Iraq
for ammunition apart from necessities such as food. France provided technology to build a second nuclear reactor.
Western countries' failure to stop Iraq:

e.g. The meeting between Saddam and US ambassador April Glapsie--giving an impression to Saddam that US will not interfere with Iraq if it were to invade Kuwait.
Power Vacuum
: After USSR withdrew from the Middle East, US stepped in to initiate peace between Palestinians and Israelis. The Arab states felt that US was only helping Israel so they distrusted the US. Saddam saw it as an opportunity to unite the Arabian countries.
Territorial Conflict
Iraq desperately needed money due to debts
-Selling oil and profiting from it is crucial for them as it is their primary source of income. It is likely that tensions can rise when the primary source of income is being compromised.
http://www.slideshare.net/jcrowder/the-gulf-war-403103?related=1
http://www.history.com/topics/persian-gulf-war
http://www.gulfwar1991.com/Gulf%20War%20Complete/Chapter%204,%20Arab%20Nationalism,%20Two%20Conflicting%20Perspectives,%20By%20Hassan%20A%20El-Najjar.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rumaila_oil_field
http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/46577/peter-w-rodman/middle-east-diplomacy-after-the-gulf-war
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gulf_War#Run-up_to_the_war
http://www.thefinertimes.com/War-in-The-Middle-East/causes-of-gulf-war-desert-storm.html -$10 a barrel, $7 billion loss a year
https://www.cia.gov/library/reports/general-reports-1/iraq_wmd_2004/chap2_annxD.html

Economic causes have
caused other conflicts
:
-Urgency of Iraq: Kuwait raised the production of oil though Iraq requested them to reduce it. Iraq was upset about this
-Territorial conflicts resulting in tension between Iraq and Kuwait due to the accusation that Kuwait had been stealing oil from Iraq.
Full transcript