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Acquisition and Learning
Transcript of Acquisition and Learning
a conscious study of the forms of language
picking up a language the way children do
without conscious attention to forms
the ability of the brain in its cognitive
development & process
to conceptualise concepts,
structures and semantics
in a language
LEARNING and ACQUISITION
how people learn languages
the active participation and
effort to learn a language
suggested that people acquire language if they get COMPREHENSIBLE INPUT. This means that they are exposed to language that is just above their own LEVEL but which they more or less understand. He suggested that this is all they need.
Krashen also suggested that the language that we learn consciously is different from the language we acquire through comprehensible input. We can use 'learnt' language to check (or MONITOR) our conversation (or writing), but these checks may stop us being fluent
because we are worrying about whether we are speaking correctly. In the 1980s, Krashen said that learnt language
could not become acquired language.
Many researchers questioned Krashen's Input Hypothesis. They said it was difficult to test because people cannot usually say if their language was acquired or learnt, and if you can't say which it was, then the theory cannot be proved or disproved.
Many people suggest that exposure to comprehensible input is not, in itself, enough for people to know and be able to speak a language. There has to be an element of conscious attention to the actual language that is being used in the input. This is especially important for learners who have reached (or gone through) puberty i.e. teenagers and adults.
Most people learn languages in classrooms. They don't have the opportunity to live in a foreign country, and they don't get the same amount of exposure to the language that children do when they learn their first language.
Most educationalists believe that children are not ready to learn language - to STUDY grammar, etc. - because of their age. For them, acquisition-like activities may be the best.
Some students seem to acquire a new language without too much effort. Many others, however, like, need and want to examine and understand what they are being exposed to.
Most language-learning lessons today include a mixture of activities, some more focused on acquisition and some more focused on learning.
Many teaching methods have focused more on learning than acquisition. Teachers following these methods have offered their students individual grammar and vocabulary items one by one.
Some teaching methods have concentrated more on acquisition than learning. Teachers have involved their students in communication and encouraged them to think more about the content of what they say or do than the FORM of the language they are using.
think of one aspect of language e.g. grammar,
vocabulary, function, task and plan haw to teach it using the LEARNING vs. ACQUISITION MODEL.
ACQUISITION vs. LEARNING