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Agenda-Setting in Social Media
Transcript of Agenda-Setting in Social Media
media and social media. Amanda Brouillard Lewis-Clark State College Relationship between Agenda-Setting in Traditional Media and Public Opinion in Social Media Maxwell McCombs
Donald Shaw - Media are effective in informing public opinion about which issues are important for deliberation Agenda-Setting: Most important theories of communication. "A phenomenon of the mass media selecting certain issues and portraying them frequently and prominently, which leads people to perceive those issues as more important than others" (Wu & Coleman 2009, p.776) Started with the case study of the presidential campaign in 1968 by Maxwell McCombs and Donald Shaw, and has advanced into multiple different levels, along with the effects on he psychological components of media. Consequences : Attitude and Behavior Parallel relationship between agenda-setting and public opinion Theory of Communication Public can view agenda-setting in everyday life. Why so Valuable? Policy makers and opinion experts should be aware Social media sites are growing rapidly in today's world Social media sites can be a reflection of public opinion shaped by the agenda from traditional media Social media sites could be used to help shape messages and media strategies for opinion specialists and researchers Agenda-Setting Theory Social Media Public Opinion What is It? Presidential Election of 1968 First and Second Level Framing & Priming When editors, newsroom staff, and broadcasters choose to present news, they are shaping political reality, which in return plays an important part in political campaigns (McCombs & Shaw, 1972). Hypothesis Method Results “the mass media set the agenda for each political campaign, influencing the salience of attitudes toward the political issues” Analyzed content from newspapers and television during the presidential election of 1968 to determine on which topics the media focused and then surveyed 100 undecided voters in the Chapel Hill community to determine which issues were important to them. The media sets the agenda for the public The media, in a political event, could set the agenda of the campaign by choosing to talk about a certain candidate or issue more than another candidate or other issues. First Level Agenda-Setting Second Level Agenda-Setting “First level agenda-setting focuses on the amount of coverage of an issue, suggesting that the media decide what issues the public will be aware of” (Wu & Coleman, 2009, p. 776). Second level agenda-setting focuses on the salience of attributes that are linked to an object. the attributes of second level agenda-setting are divided into two dimensions: substantive and affective Framing: Priming: the selection of a restricted number of thematically related attributes for inclusion on the media agenda when a particular object is discussed” (Weaver, McCombs, & Shaw, 2004). Example Study: Method Results In their 1977 study, Price, Tewksbury and Powers (1997) provide evidence that frames in the news influence topical focus of respondents’ thoughts. Asked a sample of students to respond to a fictitious story about the state funding of their university. The different news frames significantly affected both the topical focus and evaluative implications of the thought-listening problems “Priming is making certain issues or attributes more salient and more likely to be accessed in forming opinions” (Weaver D. H., 2007, p. 145). Relation to Political Parties Experiment: Result: Method: Effects The effects of agenda-setting theory can be explained by two major components: attitudes and behavior. German voters and political party preference during 1986 and how the voters were influenced by news agenda on television. German voters and political party preference during 1986 and how the voters were influenced by news agenda on television. if the media chooses to focus on a certain topic or attributes about the topic, the media is then priming the issue, leading the public to form certain opinions on that issue. Are ways of communication that allow for the creation and exchange of user content. Twitter grown from three million users to 160 million users (Roach, 2010) “trending topics” on the social media site Twitter start conversations among users. The media are a powerful presence in U.S culture, and advertising is one of the most blatant examples of media-induced opinion "Importance" Studies Show... Its impact ... Not only do the media bias people’s perceptions by offering an unrepresentative view of the world at times, the media can also create social norms. tested opinions expressed by in-group and out-group members Study: Method: Subjects viewed a video tape of a peer tribunal in which a fraternity member was accused of vandalizing school property” (Anastasio, Rose, & Chapman, 1999, p. 154). “Most social scientists who study public opinion and public policy in democratic countries agree that (1) public opinion influences public policy; (2) the more salient an issue to the public, the stronger the relationship is likely to be” (Burnstein, 2003, p. 29). Paul Burnstein’s (2003) research of the effects of public opinion on public policy was based on the measurement of opinion in large random samples and a clear measure of public policy. Research: Hypothesis H1: Trending topics on social media reflect headlines of traditional media sources. METHOD Unites of Analysis Procedure VS. Tending topics and news headlines will be collected from January 1 to January 14, 2013, for training coders only. Coders will be trained using a 2-3 day period which will be followed by discussion that will help facilitate the next round of coding. After coders reach at least 70 percent agreement, they will then analyze units that were collected by the researcher from January 15 through January 31, 2013. Day of Analysis Results showed that during the same day trending topics on twitter aligned with traditional media headlines 9.41% (16/170) and traditional media headlines aligned with trending topics on twitter 4.71% (24/510). Day Before Analysis Results showed that trending topics on twitter aligned with traditional media headlines from the day before 4.12% (7/170) and traditional media headlines aligned with trending topics on twitter 1.18% (6/510). Day After Analysis Results showed that trending topics on twitter aligned with traditional media headlines the day after 7.06% (12/170) and traditional media headlines aligned with trending topics on twitter 2.75% (14/510). Further Research: Researchers could count the number of tweets mentioning keywords from headlines and their positive or negative content. To strengthen this study, a longer time period to collect more data could help. How to Strengthen the Study... Another suggestion for further research would be to sample traditional media sources at the local, regional, national and global levels.