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Cell Organelle Assesment

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Morgan Eppley

on 14 October 2013

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Transcript of Cell Organelle Assesment

Cell Organelle Assessment
Cell to Baseball Stadium
Cell Membrane
Made of phospholipids, the cell membrane contains a hydrophilic zone on the outside of the cell as well as inside the cell. In between the two lipid layer is a hydrophobic zone. Transport proteins are embedded in the membrane and there are carbohydrates on the outside.
The cell membrane protects the cell and controls what goes in and out of the cell. This means the membrane is selectively permeable. Transport proteins allow molecules that may be blocked by the hydrophobic region to pass through the membrane. Carbohydrates act as like a signal to allow cells to communicate with each other.
The cell membrane is similar to the stadium walls and gates because like the membrane, the stadium gate controls what can go in and out of the park.
Filled with a jelly like substance called nucleoplasm that holds objects in place, within the nucleus there is a nucleoulus, Nuclear Envelope, Nuclear Pores, and Chromatin. The nucleolus is a dense area where DNA is concentrated. The Nuclear Envelope surrounds the nucleus and contains Nuclear Pores. Chromatin is unwound DNA in string form.
The nucleus controls most of the cell functions. Particularly, the nucleolus acts as and area for RNA and ribsome production. The Nuclear Envelope helps keep Chromatin and DNA inside of the cell, and the Nuclear Pores allow RNA to leave the nucleus. Chromatin holds genetic information.
The nucleus is similar to the owner of the ball park, because the owner controls most of the ball park's functions and holds all information about the ball park
Only in animal cells, made up of two short cylinders of microtubules at right angles
Organize microtubules in the cytoskeleton during cell division
Centrioles are similiar to the game ushers, because the ushers direct and organize people to their seats similarly to how the centrioles organize the microtubules.
Jelly like material that fills the cell
Fills the cell, giving it shape, structure, stability, and protects the organelles from moving to much.
Like the cytoplasm that gives cells stability, the ball park's fans give the stadium financial stability.
Golgi Apparatus
System of flattened, membrane sacs. Sacs nearest to the nucleus receive vesicles from the ER's newly made proteins and lipids

Transports and modifies vesicles. It also gives proteins new address labels that direct them to various parts of the cell. Also alters new lipids and adds carbohydrate labels.
Like the Golgi Apparatus, food vendors provide access to energy and food, and send that food out to different parts of the stadium.
Have an inner and outer phospholipid membrane.
The outer membrane separates the inner part of the mitochondria from the cytoplasm, the inner membrane folds into cristae, which increase the surface area of the inner membrane for more chemical reactions for ATP, giving the mitochondria more room to create energy. Mitochondria is also the only organelle besides the nucleus that holds its own separate DNA.
Ballpark chefs are similar to the mitochondria because they prepare the food for consumption, just like mitochondria prepares energy for cell consumption. Also like how the mitochondria contains it's own seperate DNA, ballpark chef contain information about recipes and food.
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Rough- A system of interconnected, flattened sacs covered with ribosomes. Little sacs or vesicles pinch off from the ends of the ER and store the digestive enzymes until they are released. Abundant in cells that produce a lot of protein, like cells in digestive glands and antibody-producing cells.

Smooth- Unlike the rough ER, smooth ER lacks ribosomes, therefore has a smooth appearance. Most cells contain very little, but an increased amount of smooth ER can lead to drug tolerance
Rough- Produces phospholipids and ribosomes. Certain types of proteins are made on the ribosomes, which are later exported from the cell or inserted into the membrane. Ribosomes on the rough ER make digestive enzymes.

Smooth- Builds lipids, and produces steroid hormones, like estrogen and testosterone. Also releases calcium that stimulates contraction. Abundant in liver and kidney cells, detoxifies drugs and poisons

The ER is similar to the General Manager of the home team. The GM puts together the team, so that there is a reason to be at the game. Without the ER, the cell would lack necessary substances to live.
Vesicles that bud from the Golgi apparatus and contain digestive enzymes.

Contain enzymes that can break down large molecules, like proteins, nucleic acids, carbs, and phospholipids. In the liver, they break down glycogen in order to release glucose into the bloodstream. Certain white blood cells with lysosomes break down bacteria. In cells, lysosomes digest worn-out organelles in autophagy.
Break down cells when it's time for cells to die, which is called autolysis. Maintain organism's health by destroying cells that no longer function properly.

Stadium matinence is similar to lysosomes because they clean and break down trash, similar to how lysosomes break down large molecules and clean the cell up.
Small, roughly spherical with no membrane. Made of protein and RNA molecules. Assembled in the nucleus and completed in the cytoplasm. Some are free, and some are attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum

To build proteins
Ribosomes provide the protein needed to make energy, in a ball park. ribosomes would be like the wholesale suppliers who sell the park food supplies to create a meal, similarly to how the ribosomes provide protein to create energy.
Hair-like structure shorter, can be on the outside of cells.
Helps detect sound, "row" protists through water like thousands of oars, and sweep water and food particles into a mouth like opening

Since the cilia can help detect sound, in a ball park they would be the announcers and help explain the game through sound.
Long and less numerous on cells that they occur on than cilia

Assist movement
Flagella are like game security because they help contain and keep crowds moving, similarly to how flagella assist cell movement
Hollow tubes made of protein called tubulin, two strands of intertwined proteins, or protein fibers coiled into cables.

Help maintains cell shape, holds organelles in place, and acts as a track that guides organelles and molecules as they move within the cell.

Provides a track for organelles to run on, similarly to how paths provide walkways for people to walk and move through the stadium
Cell Theory
The three basic principles of cells are:

1. "All living organisms are composed of one or more cells.
2. "Cells are the basic units of structure and function in a cell.
3. Cells only come from the reproduction of existing cells."
Matthias Schleiden, Theodor Shwann, and Rudolf Virchow
Plant vs. Animal Cells
Almost all organelles are the same in plant and animal cells. With a difference of four organelles, the lifestyles of the cells are drastically different. Both cell types contain a nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane, golgi apparatus, mitochondria, ER, lysosome, ribsomes, cilia or flagellum, and a cytoskeleton. Plant cells contain a cell wall, chloroplasts, and vacuoles which are not in animal cells, while animal cells contain centrioles which are not found in plant cells.
Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes
Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes cotain a lot of the same organelles and perform most of the same functions. Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes both have ribosomes, cytoplasm, and are surrounded by a plasma membrane. They also have the same type of DNA and genetic code. Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes are also extremely different, for example, Eukaryotes contain a nucleus, have a linear DNA pattern, and their DNA is formed into chromosomes. Prokaryotes do not contain a nucleus, have a circular DNA pattern, and their DNA is not formed into chromsomes. Eukaryote's ribosomes are larger and more complex than Prokaryotes and contain membrane bound organelles, that the Prokaryotic cell lacks. All in all though they have similarities, Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes are extremely different.
By Morgan Eppley
Lab Biology B4aG4
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