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History of Afghanistan
Transcript of History of Afghanistan
reigned from 1933 to 1973 Nur Muhammad Taraki, Secretary General of the PDPA, became President of the Revolutionary Council and Prime Minister Democratic Republic of Afghanistan Communist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) forms, close ideological ties to the Soviet Union. 1967: split into the Khalq (Masses) led by Nur Muhammad Taraki and Hafizullah Amin and supported by the military, and the Parcham (Banner) led by Babrak Karmal 1964: King Zahir Shah introduces a liberal constitution to create two-chamber legislature and king appoints one-third of the deputies Daoud's Republic (1973-78) July 17, 1973: former Prime Minister Daoud seizes power from Zahir in a military coup Abolishes monarchy, becomes first President and Prime Minister of Afghan republic New constitution of 1977 fails to solve major economic problems and quell political instability April 27, 1978: PDPA initiates a overthrows and kills Daoud and his family with Soviet support Marxist-styled reforms
imprisonment, torture and murder of thousands of members of the traditional elite and the religious establishment Soviet Invasion! December 24, 1979: Soviet airforce invade Kabul, killing Hafizullah Amin and replacing him with Babrak Karmal as Prime Minister The U.S. supplies the mujahideen (Afghan fighters) with weapons and training to resist the communist regime, Karmal unable to establish strong control outside of Kabul May 1986: Karnal replaced by Muhammad Najibullah
highly dependent on Soviets 1988: Geneva Accords
Soviets promise full withdrawl by Feb. 15, 1989
14,500 Soviets and 1 million Afghans killed in process April 1992: Islamic Jihad Council assumes power in Kabul The Taliban and Al Qaeda Many Taliban had educated in madrassas in Pakistan and largely from rural southern Pashtun backgrounds Captured Kandahar in 1994, spreading control further around, gained Kabul by Sept. 1996 In 1998, the Taliban occupied 90% of country imposed extremist interpretation of Islam, severe violation of human rights, esp. against females and minority groups (Shi'a Hazara) Osama bin Laden provided political and financial support for
bombing of the U.S. Embassies in Nairobi and Dar Es Salaam in 1998
September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks against the United States The U.S. and other nations began war on terrorism Oct. 7, 2001, set to eliminate Taliban military and terrorist facilities.
Taliban disintegrated, Kabul fell Nov. 13, 2001. Bonn Agreement: Afghan Interim Authority was formed, took office in Kabul on December 22, 2001 with Hamid Karzai as Chairman The Transitional Authority, led by Hamid Karzai, renamed government as the Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan (TISA), constitution ratified January 4, 2004
renamed the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Dec. 7 September 1979: Hafizullah Amin seizes power from Taraki, waging attacks at his enemies within the PDPA and causing great party instability October 9, 2004: first national democratic presidential election
Dec. 7: Karzai becomes first democratically elected Afghan president (5 year term) November 2, 2009: Karzai elected to another 5 year term Apr. 2008: failed assassination attempt on Karzai
Weak central government and weak economy lead to an increase in illegal drug production
Government corruption reduces the effectiveness of international financial aid The Islamic Republic of Afghanistan The Afghanistan War (1978–92) Taliban and Al Qaeda largely slowed, but still influences population in the recruitment of the poor and illiterate In October 7, 2001: Taliban refused to turn in Osama Bin Laden, U.S. and allies began their daily air strikes against Afghanistan military In 1996 the Talibans had looted and stolen 80% of Afghanistan's treasure.
The hidden Bactria treasure now kept in Kabul away from the Taliban joined the United Nations in 1946 The Soviet Union Afghanistan Muhammad Najibullah Hafizullah Amin Sept. 11, 2001: Taliban hijacks four U.S passenger planes, crashing two into the towers of the World Trade Center Hamid Karzai Establishes the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan with support from Pakistan