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Copy of Fur Trade: Grade 5 Unit
Transcript of Copy of Fur Trade: Grade 5 Unit
Coureur des bois and the fur trade
Native peoples were essential to the fur trade because they traded for and brought furs from the interior regions of French, British, and later, American territories in North America to French trading posts. During times of hostilities, it was safer for French traders to have their Native allies hunt and trap for furs, but more money could be made by those who were willing to venture into the interior rivers and lakes and bring back beaver pelts and other furs themselves. During peaceful times, many young men in New France were attracted to the high profits and adventure of the trade. They were entrepreneurs, working for themselves rather than representing a company, and became known as coureurs de bois, or "woodland runners". By 1680, approximately 500 coureurs de bois were working in the Lake Superior region attempting to outdistance the middlemen.
During the 17th century, the fur trade was very lucrative for New France. Competition was fierce, and many colonists risked the journey west and north through hostile Iroquois territory from the settlements around Montreal to the pays d'en haut, or "upper country" (the area around the Great Lakes) to trade with Native trappers. These coureurs des bois were not looked upon favorably by Montreal authorities or royal officials. They disapproved of settlers leaving the developing agricultural areas to seek their fortune trading. French authorities preferred that the transportation of furs be handled by the natives (and later the Voyageurs) than have independent unregulated traders. The unregulated traffic in furs also undermined Montreal's role as the focal point for the fur trade — where traders would exchange beaver pelts for trade goods such as clothing, muskets and copper pots. Some illicit traders also caused problems by trading alcohol for furs. Voyageurs vs. Coureur des bois What are some of BC's Resources? What is an endangered species? Why do you think people wanted fur from these two animals? 5+7= (cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr Fur Trade: Trading Posts The Fur Trade: What is a pelt? What? Where? When? Why? Who? It is something in your environment that you can use to survive
The skin of an animal with the fur, wool, or hair still on it.
The company began in 1670. It was at one time the largest landowner in the world, with Rupert's Land having 15% of North American acreage. From its long time headquarters at York Factory on Hudson Bay, the company controlled the fur trade throughout North America for 200 hundred years. Voyageur Coureur des Bois (Runner of the Woods) (Traveler) French colonization of Canada, which began in 1604, was directed from the start toward fur trade with the Indians. Quebec, founded as a trading post by Samuel de Champlain in 1608, became the headquarters for far-flung operations. Champlain himself explored westward to Lake Huron's Georgian Bay, establishing what became the regular route to the interior of the country. The fur trade required continuous expansion, for commercial trapping soon depleted an area. The Algonquin and Huron Indians, allies of the French, trapped out their own country and then became middlemen in procuring furs from tribes farther west. Many French colonists took up trapping and hunting on their own; they were known as coureurs de bois (woods runners). Took up trapping and hunting on their own Hired by NWC NAME WORKED FOR JOB They were a bit like modern-day truckers. They were responsible for the transport of furs and of trading goods between the St. Lawrence Valley and the Northwest. Their Job
- signed contracts for 1-3 years of work
- had a passion for adventure and the extreme rugged life
- they traveled for months at a time
- worked 14 hours a day
- sang song after song after song
- carried bundles of fur (90 lbs each)
- had licenses
MORE INFORMATION Life at the Fort Langley Everyone who worked at the fort are servants of the Company - start work at 6 am
- fewer than 20 families
- and everyone works, even the children
- children are not in school Jobs for Men
- farming, hunting
- fishing, building boats
- making barrels
- making furniture
- feeding the animals
- milking the cows
Jobs for Women
- made butter and foods
- raised children
- kept canoes in good working condition. They were the "pit mechanics"
- made clothing, snowshoes, sewed jackets, pants, moccasins What is a Portage? - Worked for the NWC but worked independently
- worked for themselves with various native groups Who, What, Where, When and Why What is a resource? What are some of BC's resources The fur trade began in the 1500's as an exchange between Indians and Europeans. The Indians traded furs for such goods as tools and weapons. Were the first to trade in furs But the British also traded furs Hudson's Bay Company faced fierce competition from the North West Company. Both companies wanted to control the fur trade. As a result, a bitter rivalry developed. By the 1800s the two sides were at war with each other. It was a fur trade war.
The Nor'westers and the Baymen would sometimes use any means to win control of the fur trade. They destroyed each other's boats and forts. They tried to bribe the other company's traders and offered more money for the furs. Some of the men even used violence and murder to get more fur.
The two sides fought each other from the 1780s until 1821. Both companies were spending all their money and energy competing with each other. The war was ruining both companies, but the North West Company weakened the most. In 1821, the two companies merged. Hudson's Bay Company was now able to run the fur trade with no competition. one two 5+7= They were a bit like modern-day truckers. They were responsible for the transport of furs and of trading goods between the St. Lawrence Valley and the Northwest. Questions History Rupert's Land NAME WORKED FOR JOB The Hudson's Bay Company established outposts to support its trappers and traders. When the company expanded west of the Rocky Mountains, it claimed a monopoly on trade in the area. Forts and settlements were built, including Fort Kamloops (built 1812), Fort Langley (1827) and Fort Victoria (1843). Fort Victoria became the Pacific headquarters for the Hudson's Bay Company. These fur trading domains soon became British colonies.
In 1871 joined Canada to become the Province of British Columbia. In 1821 the North West Company had to admit defeat, and joined with HBC. HBC then became the most powerful organization in North America.
Not only was HBC in charge of the land, they also made and enforced many of the laws. This continued until 1870, when HBC gave up its control under the Deed of Surrender. The fur trade was also beginning to change. In 1821, HBC began trading furs from other countries.
An animal called the nutria (or coypu) was discovered in South America. It was just as good as beaver fur, and
To make things worse, everybody fashionable had started wearing silk hats. The challenge ahead for the HBC was to change its trading posts into a chain of retail stores. In 1881 it opened its first modern store in Winnipeg, Manitoba. The York boat was an inland boat used by the Hudson's Bay Company to carry furs and trade goods along inland waterways in Rupert's Land and the Columbia District. It was named after York Factory, the headquarters of the HBC, and modeled after Orkney Islands fishing boats (themselves a descendant of the Viking long boat). York Boats were preferable to the canoes, used by Nor'west Company Voyageurs as a cargo carriers, because of its larger size, greater capacity, and improved stability in rough water. The boat's heavy wood construction also gave it an advantage in travelling through rocks or ice; it was much more immune to tears and punctures. That advantage became a disadvantage, though, when portaging was necessary. The boat was far too heavy to carry, and it was necessary instead to cut a path through the brush, lay poplar rollers, and laboriously drag the boat overland. Regardless of the circumstances, crewing a York boat was an arduous task, and those who chose this life faced "unending toil broken only by the terror of storms," according to explorer Sir John Franklin. York Boat Montréal agents such as Simon "The Marquis" MCTAVISH and his nephew and successor William MCGILLIVRAY shrewdly directed the NWC's affairs, but much of the company's success was due to the élan of its officers and employees (engagés). WINTERING PARTNERS participated in decision making and enjoyed the profits of the trade. Unlike the HBC, the NWC permitted all ranks to take Indian wives à la façon du pays, a policy that resulted in a certain stability and a sizable MÉTIS population by the early 19th century. In 1789 Alexander MACKENZIE carried the company's flag to the Arctic Ocean, and in 1793 he reached the Pacific Ocean overland. Later explorers such as Simon FRASER and David THOMPSON opened up the fur lands west of the Rocky Mountains. The signing of JAY'S TREATY in 1794 ended the southwest trade, and a new rival, the XY COMPANY, appeared in 1798. But the NWC met its challenge and in 1804 absorbed this upstart. The End of the Fur Trade Fur Trade Wars Leap Frog Portages Along the canoe routes, the fur traders would have to switch from one river or lake to another, andn avoid dangerous rapids and waterfalls. This meant they had to carry their canoes, supplies and loads for many km on their backs. Brigade When transporting furs or supplies the traders travelled in large convoys. Sometimes a brigade would include three hundred canoes. Simon Fraser Alexander Mackenzie Why do you think the fur trade came to an end? What happened to Hudson Bay Company then? Conclusion of our fur trade unit Alexander Mackenzie
Alexander Mackenzie was born in Scotland. He moved to the American colonies when he was 10 years old. He began work for the North West Company in 1774. He was given the job of exploring new land in search of fur supplies. He made several expeditions in search of the Northwest Passage. On his first trip he travelled down a 450 km river, which was later named after him. After five weeks, he reached Ocean, but it was the wrong one. He had reached the Arctic, not the Pacific, Ocean.
When they reached the Rocky Mountains his crew begged him to return home. They were very tired after such a difficult voyage, but Mackenzie was determined not to give up. He finally reached the Pacific Ocean on July 22, 1793, making him the first European to do so over land rather than by sea.
The fur trade made Sir Alexander Mackenzie rich. In 1799, he returned to England to publish a book about his travels. It quickly became a bestseller. On February 27, 1802 Alexander Mackenzie was knighted and became Sir Alexander Mackenzie. 1 gun = 4 beaver
cloth = 4 beaver
4 knives = 1 beaver
1 kettle = 1 beaver
soap = 1/2 beaver Coypu