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Personality Theories

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Janos Kollar

on 14 April 2013

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Transcript of Personality Theories

Personality Theories TRAIT THEORIES SCHOOLS OF PSYCHOLOGY AND THEIR PERSONALITY THEORIES Personality Theories Hippocrat (400 BC) melancholic Gordon Allport (1897-1967) PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY (depressive) (too much black bile)

These people tend to be sad, even depressed, and take a pessimistic view of the world. The name has, of course, been adopted as a synonym for sadness, but comes from the Greek words for black bile. Now, since there is no such thing, we don’t quite know what the ancient Greeks were referring to. But the melancholy person was thought to have too much of it! choleric (irritable) (too much yellow bile)

The choleric type is characterized by a quick, hot temper, often an aggressive nature. sanguine (optimistic) (blood is the dominant body fluid)

The sanguine type is cheerful and optimistic, pleasant to be with, comfortable with his or her work. According to the Greeks, the sanguine type has a particularly abundant supply of blood (hence the name sanguine, from sanguis, Latin for blood) and so also is characterized by a healthful look, including rosy cheeks. phlegmatic (calm, uninterested) (mucus is the dominant body fluid.

These people are characterized by their slowness, laziness, and dullness. The name obviously comes from the word phlegm, which is the mucus we bring up from our lungs when we have a cold or lung infection. Physically, these people are thought to be kind of cold, and shaking hands with one is like shaking hands with a fish. Theophrastus (327-287 BC) suggested 30 different types of personality (Liar, Disgusting, Flattering, Miserly, etc.) TYPE THEORIES William Shakespeare Julius Caesar (Act 1, Scene 2):

Caesar: “Let me have men about me that are fat;
Sleek-headed men and such as sleep o’nights.
Yond Cassius has a lean and hungry look;
He thinks too much: such men are dangerous.

Antonius:Fear him not, Caesar, He’s not dangerous;
He’s a noble Roman, and well given.

Caesar:Would he were fatter!…” Type theories claim that you can deduce the personality from body shape, body fluids etc. and people can be categorized into different quality categories.
Problem: they are too simple.
Nevertheless we are aggressive, intelligent, irritable, anxious sometimes. Trait: a distinguishing quality as of personality He made a distinction between common traits and personal dispositions.
Common trait: for eg.: sincerity.
Personal disposition: for eg.: white lie or straight sincerity.
Common trait: basic characteristic feature.
Personal disposition: the way how the common traits manifest themselves. Hans Eysenck (1916-1997) Neuroticism is the name Eysenck gave to a dimension that ranges from normal, fairly calm and collected people to one’s that tend to be quite “nervous.”
His research showed that these nervous people tended to suffer more frequently from a variety of “nervous disorders” we call neuroses, hence the name of the dimension.
But understand that he was NOT saying that people who score high on the neuroticism scale are necessarily neurotics -- only that they are more susceptible to neurotic problems. The Big 5 Five broad factors were discovered and defined by several independent sets of researchers. These researchers began by studying known personality traits and then factor-analyzing hundreds of measures of these traits (in self-report and questionnaire data, peer ratings, and objective measures from experimental settings) in order to find the underlying factors of personality. Sigmund Freud Erik Erikson (1902 – 1994) BEHAVIORISM HUMANISTIC THEORY Carl Rogers (1902-1987) 1. Congruence -- genuineness, honesty with the client.
2. Empathy -- the ability to feel what the client feels.
3. Respect -- acceptance, unconditional positive regard towards the client. Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) Victor Frankl (1905-1997)
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