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Quebec

Quebecois- Why do they speak french in Quebec?
by

Richard Massell II

on 27 April 2014

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Transcript of Quebec

Quebec is known for all things maple-related, but this is one of the province’s most distinctive offerings
Tire sur la neige is a taffy formed by pouring still hot, boiled maple sap directly onto fresh snow. The result is a soft, flexible candy that begs to be eaten immediately.
Available at most sugar shacks. These visitor-friendly maple syrup production outfits are found across southern Quebec, with the highest concentration in the Montérégie region (on the south shore of the St. Lawrence, near Montreal) and the Laurentians.
Parti Quebecois is a nationalist party formed in 1968
"For a Sovereign Quebec in a Canadian Federation"- liberal militants failed to gain acceptance for their program, which formed the PQ
1757- William Pitt appointed Secretary of State (in charge of military affairs and colonial policy)
He saw the war with France as an opportunity to build a vast empire
1759- the Plains of Abraham- major victory for British, lead to expulsion of the French from Quebec City by 1760
1754- Lieutenant colonel George Washington tried to expel the French from the valley but he failed
The French then defeated General Edward Baddock and Governor William Shirley (who expelled the Acadians from Nova Scotia)
The British colonies inhibited the Eastern seaboard of the valley
Colonists from Pennsylvania and Virginia wanted to expand Westward into the valley
1756-1763, aka The Seven Years War:
American Indians were first inhabitants of the Ohio River Valley wanted to keep their lifestyle

Why do they speak French in Quebec?
The French and Indian War
Jacques Cartier- explorer and navigator
Colonization & War
1534- French King Francis I commissioned an expedition to find a western route to China
Quebec French- Quebecois
93% of population in Quebec
Quebec English- Anglos
7% of population in Quebec
2% are bilingual
Introduction
Sailed through the Gulf of St. Lawrence and came ashore on the Gaspe Peninsula, claiming the land for France
Early settlement was unsuccessful because most settlers died from the harsh winter of the region
Then along came
Samuel De Champlain
1608- built fort on what is now modern day Quebec City, and the North America Colonization began!
New France:
At its peak in 1712, New France extended from Newfoundland to the Rocky Mountains and from Hudson Bay to the Gulf of Mexico.
Began with Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ended with cession to Great Britain and Spain in 1763
The boarders between French and British possessions was not well defined, leading to a dispute over the Ohio River Valley
The Ohio River Valley was very important to French trade and exploration
France's expansion into the valley raised conflicts with the British
1756- British officially declared war on the French
1761- the French entered into an alliance with the Spanish, which was unsuccessful
1763- war ended with 2 treaties: the Treaty of Hubertusburg and the Treaty of Paris
French lost all mainland territory in North America

British received Quebec and the Ohio River Valley and the Spanish gained the Port of New Orleans and Louisiana
The Treaty of Paris 1763
Born 1567 Brouage, France
Died 1635 “Quebec, New France”
Acknowledged Founder of Quebec

The Father of New France- single most important factor in the initial success of the French in attempts to gain a strong foothold in North America
Crossed Atlantic more than 20 times to encourage and maintain support for the venture
1608- established Quebec City
1609- fighting along side his Indian allies against the Mohawk
1611- returned to France upon the assassination of Henri IV
1613- Wrote a book (Les voyages) and worked to raise funds and support for the Canadian venture
Samuel de Champlain
These optical views are part of a series called the Collection des Prospects engraved by Francis Xavier Habermann in Augsburg, Germany.  None are dated but from their subject matter it is likely that they were published in response to European curiosity about the events of the American Revolution.  The title is engraved backwards because they were intended to be shown on a wall or screen using a "magic lantern," which was a precursor to the slide projector that used candles and mirrors to project the image
Fantasy views of Quebec and Boston
These town views bear no resemblance to the actual towns they are supposed to portray, and most seem to have been copied from European town and city views already in circulation, or are composites of those views.  These optical views were intended to entertain and were often shown at European town fairs and other gatherings.  The views of "Quebec" and "Boston" shown here reinforce the idea that these New World cities were not wilderness outposts, but were worthy of being considered on European terms.
More for the purpose of entertainment for the Europeans back home that have the impression of New France as savage
These images convey that New France is modern and worthy of European consideration

Historical etching- St Lawrence River, Quebec
Samuel de Champlain takes on 12-year old bride
Fishing, Furs and Christianity
The fur trade began as an adjunct to the fishing industry. Early in the 16th century fishermen from northwest Europe were taking rich catches of cod on the Grand Banks off Newfoundland and in the Gulf of St Lawrence (see History of Commercial Fisheries). Drying their fish onshore took several weeks, during which time good relations had to be maintained with Aboriginal people, who were eager to obtain metal and cloth goods from the Europeans. What they had to offer in exchange were furs and fresh meat. The fishermen found an eager market in Europe for the furs and made high profits.

Fur Trade
When the wide-brimmed felt hat came into fashion later in the 16th century, the demand for beaver pelts increased tremendously. The best material for hat felt was the soft underfur of the beaver, the strands of which had tiny barbs that made them mat together tightly.
The first French traders established permanent shore bases in Acadia, a post at Tadoussac, and in 1608 a base at Québec to exploit the trade more effectively.
Before the arrival of the Europeans, the Mohican were the most powerful of the Indian tribes in our area. They controlled the territory from Lake Champlain to Dutchess County in the lower Hudson Valley, and from southern Vermont westerly to the Schoharie drainage.
The Iroquoian and Algonkian tribes were the last of the Late Woodland people in New York State and played an important role in our colonial history.
Québec is the only Canadian province in which French is the sole official language. This particularity is the result of a long series of language battles that are still having repercussions today.
The roots of Québec's language tensions go all the way back to the Conquest of 1760, when the French colony became a British possession. English-speaking merchants, who formed a minority in New France, soon took control of the economy and would seek to impose their will on the French-speaking majority for the next 200 years.
During that time, the language of business, the workplace and social integration would essentially be English.
It was not until the rebellious mindset of the Quiet Revolution and, more specifically, the reactions to the 1965 findings of the Laurendeau-Dunton Commission on Bilingualism, particularly concerning the extent of bilingualism in the federal administration, that French-speaking Quebeckers began to clamor for the right to live in French in the various spheres of their society.
The situation became potentially explosive, and a conflict over language in the northeast Montreal neighborhood of Saint Léonard provided the spark that set off the Québec language crisis of the 1970s.
By Mathieu Noël, under the supervision of Dominique Marquis, Laboratoire d'histoire et de patrimoine de Montréal, Université du Québec à Montréal
Language Conflict in Quebec
Quebec Separatism and Political Environment
The majority of the French population feels unique to North America
Canadian French believe they are historically and culturally distinct from the Anglos
Stemming from these beliefs, separatism has always had a strong following in Quebec
The Mindset
Capitalized on this sentiment through advocating national sovereignty for Quebec and secession from Canada as its main platform
Parti Quebecois
PQ leader Pauline Marois
1976- PQ won election over Liberals
Referendum in 1980 - proposed sovereignty-association, failed 60% no to 40% yes
Referendum in 1995- Sovereignty, along with optional partnership with the rest of Canada, failed 50.58% no to 49.42% yes

September 4th, 2012- PQ secured leadership with a 32% majority vote
Main focus- gain control over immigration policy and unemployment insurance
With PQ in power and preaching secession- tensions are rising between federal and provincial governments, and between English and French speaking citizens
Is Independence feasible?
Canada's GDP is US$1.74 trillion- Quebec accounts for 20% (roughly 300 billion)
Quebec would lose Canadian partnerships- mainly with the US- who accounts for 72% of Canadian exports & Canada imported 62% of its good from the US
Economic difficulties and national debt (around 70% of Canada's total GDP)
28% of Quebec's population support secession- referendum would need to surpass 75% mark to pass
Involvement from the US over the St. Lawrence river- critical geographical choke point for the US upper mid-west, as well as central Canada
Forced to pay a portion of Canada's national debt
Quebec would lose billions of redistributed tax income from Ottawa
Separation would be very costly for Quebec
History of Quebec
Relationship between English and French speaking citizens
Poor relationship
English speakers are being alienated with PQ back in power
PQ new law- reduce use of English in schools, hospitals, and shops
Inspectors from L'Office quebecois de la langue francaise
Creating tension and oppressing the English language, squeezing it out
The language Police
Examples
The parrot and the pet store in Montreal
Store owner asked to make french language on sign 3 times bigger than the rest
PastaGate Scandal
February survey- 42% of Quebec's English speakers are considering leaving the province
PQ claims bilingualism will lead to the loss of the French culture in Quebec
Relationship between English and French citizens
Quebec Minister Jean-Francois Lisee
"The relationship between Canada and Quebec is like the last stages of a couple that will divorce at some point."
"There's no love, there's no hate, there's not any resentment. There's simply nothing there."
Canadian French vs Traditional French
How does canadian french differ from traditional French?
Quebec french sounds similar to 300 year old french

French spoken throughout Quebec varies significantly in accent and flavor from region to region
Depends on level of education and social status
Standard French has 12 vowels, Canadian French has 15+
Canadian French vs Traditional French
Canadian French vs traditional French
Profanity- Quebec French use references to Catholic liturgical terminology, rather than references to prostitution
Quebecers have a variety of words created in Quebec or French spoken in the 17th century from Northwestern French provinces
Different Dialects
Quebec french
Acadian French
Chiac- incorporates many english words
Brayon French- New Brunswick
Joual- Montreal
Chaouin- spoken just outside Quebec
By Law, everything must be translated to French
Tourist Attractions in Quebec
Food in Quebec
Just might be Quebec’s signature food. The messy pile of fries, gravy, and cheese curds isn’t new, but in recent years it’s experienced a renaissance, spreading across Canada and beyond. Gourmet versions have appeared in trendy gastro-diners and even the New York Times has jumped on board, celebrating poutine’s arrival in Manhattan.
The traditional take is still best for poutine newcomers. That means picking up a basic version—thick-cut, home-style fries, homemade gravy, and fresh curds—from a roadside chip truck. The trucks are found on busy city streets and along highways across the province.


Poutine
Tire sur la Neige in Montérégie and Laurentians
Cheese in Eastern Townships

Quebec’s cheese scene is so vibrant that there is an entire route des fromages designed for cheese tourists. The route includes producers across the province, but if you have limited time, the Eastern Townships has a large number of options.
Part of the reason for the province’s thriving dairies is its legalization of young, raw-milk cheeses—the production of soft cheeses that have been aged less than 60 days is banned in much of North America. Ask about local specialties wherever you find yourself. Rather than copying famous French cheeses, Quebec’s producers have been creating varieties of their own.

Quebec’s cheese scene is so vibrant that there is an entire route des fromages designed for cheese tourists. The route includes producers across the province, but if you have limited time, the Eastern Townships have a large number of options.
Part of the reason for the province’s thriving dairies is its legalization of young, raw-milk cheeses—the production of soft cheeses that have been aged less than 60 days is banned in much of North America. Ask about local specialties wherever you find yourself. Rather than copying famous French cheeses, Quebec’s producers have been creating varieties of their own.
Cheese in Eastern Townships
Montreal’s street-meat staple.
It’s a local variation on a chicken shawarma—marinated, boneless chicken, roasted on a vertical spit and then sawed off and piled on a pita with pickled veggies and hummus—and it is ubiquitous in the city.
Shish Taouk in Montreal
Traditional Quebecois meat pie
Filling varies from region to region, but it often involves minced pork, beef, or wild game
Pies are sold in grocery stores across the province, but one of the best places to sample one is at Aux Anciens Canadiens, a restaurant in Quebec City that specializes in old-fashioned Quebecois cuisine
Tourtiere in Quebec City
Music:
Jazz- the lost fingers (gypsy jazz band)
Classic music- opera, Andre Mathieu, "little Canadian Mozart"- official music of 1976 summer olympics
Wu Tang Klan?
Music, Cinema, & Celebrities from Quebec
Karkwa- indie rock band
Karim Ouellet- L'Amour
Music
http://www.cinemaquebec.com/allo-top10f.html
Film
Celebrities
Bill 101
Aka The Charter of the French Language
Passed in 1977
Law defining French as the official language of Quebec
Frames fundamental language rights
Amended six times- provisions as the use of French on commercial signs or restrictions on enrollment into anglophone schools
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