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1920s: Social Aspects
Transcript of 1920s: Social Aspects
Anarchists: A person who believes in the abolition of government or governmental restraint as the indispensable condition for full social and political liberty
Communism: A system of social organizationinwhich all economic and social activity is controlled by a toltalitarian state dominated by a single and self-perpetuating political party
Race: A person's ethnicity that contributes to who they are
Bolsheviks: (in Russia) A member of the more radical majority of the Social Democratic party from 1903-1917, which advocated immediate and forceful seizure of power by the proletariat.
Fundamentalism: A movement that occured in reaction to modernism that stresses in strength of the Bible in literal historical record, as well as faith and morals.
Prohibition and Crime Vocabulary Speakeasy: A saloon or nightclub selling alcoholic beverages illegally, especially during Prohibition
Bootlegger: Alcoholic liquor unlawfully made, sold, or transported without registration or payment or taxes. Women Harlem Renaissance and the Emergence of Black Indpendence Vocabulary:
Renaissance: An African American cultural movement in the 1920's and 1930's.
Jazz: Music originating in New Orleans around the beginning of the 20th century which developed through various increasingly complex styles, generaly marked by melodic freedom. A: A correspondent of the New York Times revealed to the general public the news about the death of Sacco and Vanzetti
P: The place was the Charlestown State Prison, in Massachusetts. They were executed on Tuesday, August 23, 1927.
P: This trial was very contoversial during this time. Both sides were strongly debated regarding whether or not these two poor Irish immigrants were guilty.
A: This news article was created for the general public, as it was published in a major newspaper company; The New York Times
R: This article was published in order to inform the general public about the execution of the Irish immigrants on account of murder, although it was strongly debated whether they were innocent or guilty.
T: The main idea of this article was, again, to inform the public about the execution of these two men accused of murder. It gave the facts surrounding the controversial trial.
S: This article showed the intolerance and suspicion during this time. Sacco and Vanzetti were poor Irish immigrants as well as anarchists. A: The author of this poem is Langston Huges, who was an influential person during the Harlem Renaissance.
P: This poem was written in 1926, most likely in Harlem, New York.
P: The Harlem Renaissance was a high point in the African American culture, as many pieces of artwork and literature were created displaying the emotions that African Americans had felt for so many years.
A: Huges' audience was for those in the general communtiy that would read African American literature.
R: Through this poem, Hughes was able to comment on the dreams the African Americans during his time felt.
T: The main idea of 'Dream Variations' is in order to portray the dream of all African Americans to be completely free.
S: This showed that Hughes like other African Americans truly did want freedom. By Langston Hughes A: Congress proposed an amendment to the Constitution and consequently wrote up a proposed article to support it. Although the government had previously shot women’s demand for the right to vote down in the past, with the proposition of this bill, they showed their support for women’s suffrage. P: The source was produced in 1919 in the first session of the sixty-sixth Congress. P: Prior to the passage of this amendment, women all over the country struggled for their right to vote. After men returned from World War I, women began to push even harder for suffrage due to the successful roles they played while the men had been away at war. A: Women were the primary audience for this source. However, this does not affect the validity of this source, for it was created by Congress as a way to appease and acknowledge the effort put in by women. R: This source was produced during this time period because women’s pursuit of the right to vote was beginning to become even more heated, and people began to realize how valuable they were to society. T: The article is communicating the desire for women’s suffrage, and the beginning of the road to equality between men and women. S: This source is important because it granted women the right to vote, which they had coveted for quite some time in the past. A: The American Issue printed this article on January 16th, 1919.
P: The 18th Amendment was ratified in Congress on January 16th, 1919. The American Issue was a newspaper company that was based in Chicago, Illinois during the time of this great change in American history.
P: For years there had been very long and large debates over whether or not an amendment to the constitution should be made, making alcohol illegal. The amendment was to be repealed in the years to come, but it had a large impact on the American society.
A: As with many newspaper articles, this article was intended for the general public, and for those who received this newspaper in Chicago.
R: This source was produced at the time, in order to inform the public about the large change that was to be made to the U.S. constitution, regarding the prohibition of alcohol.
T: The main idea of this article was 18th amendment, and how on this, “Momentous Day in the World’s History” the United States was to become a dry country, in which alcohol was banned.
S: This source was very important as it revealed that the U.S. had added an amendment to the U.S. constitution prohibiting the use of alcohol. Essential Question:How is popular culture in the 20's different than the previous decade? In comparison to the previous decade, popular culture in the 1920s was characterized as an age of prosperity, entertainment, and radical changes in manufacturing. While the 1910s were led by a period of industrialization and progressivism, little time was left for luxury and consumerism. The introduction of the radio and movies as well as improved advertising led greater ease when it came to communication and entertainment. As people took part in all kinds of personal activities, growth in an identifying culture for the 1920s was imminent. Essential Question: How do attitudes towards immigrants, blacks and other minorities reflect the intolerance of the decade? How does the nostalgia and attitudes from the past conflict with modern ideas of the decade? Intolerance towards immigrants, blacks and other minorities increased during the 1920's. These were made national through nativist groups such as the KKK, trials such as Sacco and Vanzetti, and Scopes, restrictions on immigration, and the Red Scare. There are people in todays' society that still have a stron fear of foreigners whether that be for economic, political, or personal reasons. However, toleracne has dramatiically increased and there are many more laws protecting and defending those of a different race/ ethnicity, or those with different beliefs. Essential Question: Would you consider the government's passage ofthe 18th amendment an over-reaction to the problem of alcohol? How do the actions of gangsters/bootleggers support the position that the government and teperance leaders had gone too far. The passage of the 18th amendment was not a over-reaction to the problem of alcohol. Violence and crime was at its peak and many of these problems could be traced back to alcohol, and that is why it would be necessary to abolish alcohol. The action of bootleggers and gangsers supported the position that government and temperance leaders had gone to far, as they attempted to get around the amendment. They hid the alcohol in hip flasks, false books, ect. Bootlegging became popular in the distribution adn production of alchol illegally. Essential Question: Despite overt racism, how did Negro's improve life in the 1920's for themselves? Despite racism, African American life was improved due to better working conditions and higher standards of working. The Jazz age helped to move African Americans ahead socially as it gave a reason for them to integrate into the American society. The effects of WWI, helped to move hundreds of thousands of African Americans forward as they found job in northern factories. The Harlem Renaissance brought about many African American poets, authors, and musicians. Essential Question:How does the Flapper represent the "new woman"? Were the 1920s successful for the women's movement? Flappers were representative of the "new woman" because they personified the individuality and modern woman that women were longing for. Their image as girls who pushed the boundaries of what was accepted and created their own rules and conditions to live by was inspiring to those who had felt oppressed by men for centuries. In addition to the success of revolutionizing the representation in the 1920s throught the Flappers, the women's movement made several significant gains as well. Their movement succeeded in getting more work hours, a minimum wage, and perhaps most importantly, the 19th amendment, which granted women the long-awaited right to vote. These achievements proved the increasing successfulness of women in society. Key Point 1: Key Points #1 Key Point #1 Before the 1920’s immigration was somewhat encouraged, for industry. WWI showed that the U.S. could function without immigrations. The main reasons for limiting immigration were economic reasons, and encouraged by the American Federation of Labor. They feared wages would decrease if unskilled immigrants came into the market to work. Overall, there was an increase in the want to decrease immigrant quotas. In 1925-Congress reduced the number of immigrants allowed into the U.S. to 2% of each nationality group counted in the 1890 census. The U.S. also completely stopped Asian immigrants. Key Points #2 Key Points #3 The KKK was an extremely radical ant-immigration nativist group. The main goal was to intimidate former slaves. During the 1920’s they started attacking other groups such as the Roman Catholics, Jews, foreigners, and divorcees, and continued their attack on African Americans. Growth in the KKK grew after World War I as more African Americans traveled to northern cities. The Red Scare was a national fear of communists, socialist, and anarchist. This scare started in 1919 after a series of anarchists bombings known as the Palmer Raids. Any person that was not considered patriotic enough was arrested. The scare ended in the summer of 1920, and it was very short lived. It added to the fear of immigrants in this decade. It was an example of American reluctance in world affairs, because the American people were afraid of foreigners and didn’t want anything to do with them including in their affairs. Key Points #4 Sacco and Vanzetti were poor Irish immigrants who had been convicted of committing robbery and murder. Some liberal Americans rallied behind the Italians. However after 6 years of debate and appeals, they were executed. This showed suspicion and intolerance, simply because they were of a different ethnicity, poor, and were anarchists. During this time our country was unwilling to accept these people as they were, including their beliefs and ethnicity Key Points #5 The 19th amendment in most ways was not effective. The government did not have the resources or drive in order to enforce the laws and regulations that went into prohibiting alcohol. They could not possibly have regulated every border, body of water, or club that may or may not have been producing or distributing alcohol illegally. Some state, like Maryland refused to pass any laws that regulated the prohibition of alcohol. Bootleggers, and other gangster distributed and produced alcohol illegally. With that being said, alcohol consuption rates decreased along with arrest rates due to alcohol, and the price of this substance increased so that it was more difficult for the average working American to afford it. Key Points #2 The government did not regularly enforce the Volstead Act that contributed to the prohibition of alcohol. They did not have the resources or means necessary in order to do this. People found ways to get around it by hiding in in hollow canes, hip flasks, or false books. Key Points #3 Gangs and crimes were a major result of the prohibition movement in the 1920's. These individuals felt as if the government and prohibition leaders had gone to far in prohibiting the distribution and production of any alcoholic substances. The most famous ganster was based in Chicago. Al Capone was famous for dominating whole cities based on the illegal distribution of alcohol. He made millions of dollars each year in profits due to his illegal business. And by 1933 he was put in jail for 9 years, on a tax invasion. Henry Ford -- an innovator in the auto industry -- was well-known for reducing the prices of automobiles, and ultimately making them available for all classes of people. His use of mass-production both employed many workers as well as created many cars at a low price. Being so affordable, people were able to utilize them in any way they chose. Families were able to remain close and go on outings together or visit relatives who were farther away. Young people were granted more freedom, allowing for new forms of entertainment to arise. However, critics suggested that arguments over the car between parents and children and insecurity over how young people were using their new freedom were both major negatives for the American automobile. Radios allowed for an easier and more efficient way to circulate information. News from around the world was able to be conveyed in a matter of minutes, and because of their inexpensive cost, most people could afford to own the piece of equipment. As time progressed, they developed into a form of entertainment for families. Gathering around the radio at night and listening to programs or music wasn’t uncommon at the time. Motion pictures were popular, although they were silent up until 1927. They served as a relatively inexpensive form of entertainment, and the growth in popularity of movie stars and fame spurred the American desire for fame and fortune. Key Point 2: While airplanes were used during World War I, they didn’t become popular until after the war had ended. The government began using them as tools when they introduced the Air-Mail system. Other large industries were then able to make use of airplanes as a way to transport freight and other products. Airplane companies eventually began offering flights to people for a price, but as these flights became more popular, prices dropped and more people were able to afford the luxury. This connected the world in a way that many people had never dreamed of being able to do. Stunts such as climbing out onto an airplane wing while in flight became a common form of entertainment and an American fad. Charles Lindbergh, the first man to make a solo, non-stop flight across the Atlantic Ocean became an American hero and icon, and a living advertisement for the success of the airplane. Key Point 3: Advertising became more of an elaborate deal during the 1920s. The increase in the use of brand names, memorable slogans, and pictures (among other ideas) led to successful campaigns for consumer spending. Companies began to appeal to the consumers’ desire for wealth and higher class. Famous people, such as celebrities and sports stars began to endorse certain products; advertising agencies were improved and able to acquire repeat customers, which built a basis of brand loyalty among customers. Key Point 4: At the time, there was a large outcrop of well-known players who influenced the amount of time that Americans spent following sports. With World War I having just ended, and the amount of work hours per day being limited, people found themselves with more free time on their hands. Following sports on the radio, and going out to different sporting events became a popular pastime. Several sports icons emerged from that decade, including Babe Ruth, Red Grange, Jack Dempsey, and others. Following and emulating these stars grew as each person’s status became more recognized. Several different types of sports became more popular, and the Olympic Games in Paris in 1924 increased the world’s interest in sports, dubbing it with the name of “The Golden Age of Sports.” Key Point 5: During World War 1, European Immigrant coming to America nearly stopped. However there was still a very large demand for low-skilled industrial workers. The African Americans took advantage of this situation as they began to move to northern cities such as New York’s Harlem. Hundreds of thousands of African-Americans began moving to these northern cities. Key Point 1: During this time it had been illegal to teach Darwin's theory of evolution. Scopes taught in in his biology class and was arrested and put on trial for it in 1925. Scopes was convicted, however it was later overturned due to a technicality. The other side was argued by William Jennings Bryant who focused mostly on religion and claimed to be,"an expert of the bible." The American Federation of Labor in 1920. The KKK demonstrating in Washington in 1920. The KKK worked to fight against African Americans, communists, and anarchists. Sacco and Vanzetti were two poor Irish immgrants People protested against the death sentence for these two immigrants. The Sacco trial was argued in court over the teaching of Darwin's theory of Evolution. In the 1920's women were strong supporters of the 19th amendment. The Volstead Act was a large part of the prohibition movement. Al Capone dominated Chicago through the illegal distribution and selling of alcohol Henry Ford thrusted American industry forward with his use of mass production. The invention of the radio greatly improved communication in the 1920's. Charles Lindbergh was the first man to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean. This was an ad for Colgate tootpaste in 1924. Babe Ruth was a baseball player that contributed much to the "Golden Age of Sports." Thinking Like a Historian
(Change and Continuity) Thinking Like a Historian (Cause and Effect) The war was a large cause of the American popular culture moving forward as a movement in the 1920's. WWI cause a much-needed increase in the producion of goods, and propelled our society towards one of automobiles, radios, airplanes, and mass media. The American society, during this time, was full of fancy things and flourishing wealth. The Jazz Age was a very large result of the society that created a new era of music, feelings and overall wealth. Sports were also populized during this time due to a need of recreational pastime. During the 1920's immigration restiction increased rapidly. This was considered a great change, although it had been done before in America. America continued to restrict immigration from many European countries, although at a much higher rate. They stopped Asian immigration altogether; a very key change in the American society. Radical groups continued their attack, especially on African American. However, in the 1920's they expanded their biased attacks on other groups based on political and religious beliefs. During the 1920's, a large panic consumed America through a large fear of foreigners, known as the Red Scare, yet it was short lived and not continued. Thinking Like a Historian
(Turning Points) In the part of American society during the 1920's that dealt with prohibition and crime; a large turning point would be the 18th amendment. This was passed in Congress on January 16th, 1919. It was great news for the groups that felt as though prohibition was completly necessary, such as women and those who dealt with crime. However, it was not well recieved in the majority of communities, and crime would become a large issue in America as a result of the Volstead Act, as well as the 18th Amendment. Although the Amendment only lasted for 14 years ( it was repealed in 1933), the 18th Amendment had a large impact on crime and prohibition and is considered a major turning point when dealing with that subject in the 1920's. The Big Idea:
How and why do things change? By:Hannah A. and Krystal O. Connection to today: In the North, African-American discrimination was still present, especially in housing and the search for jobs. Improvements in the wages and standards of living were made during this time. Racial pride increased in Harlem as many individuals became talented musicians, actors, artists, and writers. (Hence the Harlem Renaissance) Key Point 2: Several famous poets from the time period included Countee Cullen, Langston Hughes, James Weldon Johnson, and Claude McKay. These literary sensations focused on African-American heritage and a wide range of emotions expressed in their poetry.
Jazz artists included Duke Ellington and Louis Armstrong; Bessie Smith was a popular singer, and Paul Robeson known for being a multi-talented actor. Key Point 3: American culture saw evidence of blending in integrated audiences in Harlem. The rest of the country still had many integrated audiences. Jazz was liked and enjoyed by blacks and whites alike during this time and helped to encourage the more positive image of the African Americans. As it became a more popular form of music, it was played on the radios, therefore endorsing a newly blended culture in America. Key Point 4: 1916 brought Garvey from Jamaica to Harlem. He endorsed individual and racial pride and developed the political ideas of black nationalism. He started the organization for black separatism and self sufficiency. In addition, he endorsed a back-to-Africa campaign. In the 1960’s, his ideas inspired this later generation to embrace black pride and nationalism. Key Point 5: Marcus Mosiah Garvey once said, "Up. You mighty race, you can accomplish what you will." People in the North were upset by the Great Migration, in which thousands of blacks moved north for jobs. The Great Migration took place during WWI As women evolved and flappers became a more popular and recognized part of life, women began to embrace the independence that came with it. Their strong independence and free-spirits attracted women who had previously been oppressed by men. Cutting hair, raising hemlines on skirts, and participation in formerly male activities such as smoking and heavy drinking gave the women's appearance as an inspirational hero to the young people of the time, and as dangerous and askew from their moral values by the older generations. Key Point 1: Several notable gains were achieved by the women's movement during the 1920s. Among the most notable was the ratification of the 19th amendment, granting women the right to vote. Women's suffrage had finally happened, thanks to enduring pressure by the movement. In addition, more work hours and minimum wage was also obtained. For the women who had the absence of a man in their life, they were then able to securely support their children and their home. Key Point 2: Life in the 20s, in comparison to the Progressive era, was radically different for many women. During the Progressive era, the accepted profession for a women was marriage. Ladies were expected to fulfill the proper expectations of life. Men refused to take women seriously when they began to push for suffrage and other rights. However, as WWI rolled around and women proved their usefulness on the home front while the men were away at war, more credibility was given to suffrage. Women pushed harder than ever for their rights, and finally secured the highly coveted right to vote, adjusting the lifestyles of women, and making them more independent and involved in society. Key Point 3: Flappers were a largely influential group of women during the 1920s that inspired women's independence and reform. African-Americans played a large role in evolving the Jazz Age in the 1920's Bessie Smith was a famous singer during the Jazz. When their husbands went off to fight in the WWI, women took over their jobs in factories Women finally got the right to vote during the 1920's through the 18th amendment Thinking Like a Historian
(Through their eyes)
During the 1920’s women saw many changed in their society that would benefit them. They realized that because many of their husbands and sons were fighting in the war they would have to take over many of their jobs at home, at work, and in society and general. This got their movement moving in the right direction, and would open doors in the future for them holding more jobs in the workplace. 1920 was a major step forward for the woman’s movement, as they got their right to vote through the 18th amendment. Although all of these great changes took place, many women were still not stratified with their place in society. The end of the 1920’s had still not achieved equality for women and this was a major disappointment for many women during this time. During the 1920s, society was in a period of adjustment following the completion of World War I. The Great Migration, an overwhelming surge of African-American migration to the North in search of jobs and a better life, had caused white resentment towards African-Americans and their culture. The whites disliked having their jobs taken by people they deemed to be lower in society than they were. The African-Americans, on the other hand, persisted in their search for better lives. They settled into mainly black communities such as Harlem, New York, and made themselves larger influences on music and culture. The introduction of jazz led whites to become more open to black influence in their lives, and the African-Americans gratefully began to integrate themselves into society, seeing an opportunity to improve their formerly oppressive lifestyle. Today, people view the time period as a time of evolution for the black community, which was good for both blacks as well as whites. The whites received jazz music, which characterized the 1920s, and the blacks received a step towards full integration, which they were fully appreciative of. Thinking Like a Historian (Differing Perspectives) The social aspects of the 1920's are a mixture of new permissive events or modernism, which collide with the old Victorian standard, and social norms of the past. IS THIS AN ACCURATE STATEMENT? Thinking Like a Historian (Change and Continuity) For many reasons that concern social aspects of life, ways of life change to accomodate the evolving society around it. When need arises, or when the people become unsatisfied with how they're living, changes in culture and morals begin to reflect the wants and needs of society. Choosing to take action, people can alter their lifestyles in many different ways, and ultimately, as a result from these actions, society evolves around those individuals. This is evident in society during the 1920s through Darwinism, the belief that society evolves based on survival of the fittest. Those who recognized change was needed and carried it out, would continue to be successful, and lead movements that were beneficial to all. In comparison to the 1920s, things that were started in 1920 are continuing today. Examples include: women maintaining the right to vote, and pushing for even further equality, music continues to define generations as well as jazz as a popular genre, and movie stars as well as athletes continue to be adored by and endorsed by society as a whole. However, some things have changed since the Roaring 20s. Alcohol consumption and sales, which was made illegal by the 18th amendment, was discontinued in 1933 by the 21st amendment. It continues to be a large part of society, especially in Wisconsin. Similarily, the African-American population went through an extensive period and movement towards equality, and are now fully integrated into American society, with rights equal to whites. In the 20s, radical groups such as the KKK made it possible to discriminate against certain groups for their religious and political beliefs. In today's society, groups that target others for these reasons are punishable by law. Based on the evidence presented throughout this project, one can conclude that the above statement is accurate; due to social aspects of the 1920s, new values collided with the Victorian standards of the past.