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Women and Work

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Valerie Rutan

on 4 December 2012

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Transcript of Women and Work

Women and Work History of Women in the Workplace Trends in the U.S Female-Male Wage Gap Women first started playing a major role in labor force during World War I Why Invest in Women? Because of World War II, deploying soldiers led to a decrease in male labor supply. To make up the difference, ultimately a majority of women had to enter the work force Wage Gap: Is it Really as Bad as They Say? Growth in female labor force gives rise to the feminist movement. Change is imminent. "The median female wage in the U.S is only 81% of the median male wage." "In 2011 the median income of FTYR works was 42,800 for men, compared to 34,700 for women." Equal Pay Act of 1963 makes it illegal to pay men and women different wages for same labor. Women now are more likely than men to graduate from high school as well as college. Women are becoming more educated In 2008, 4 in 10 mothers were their family’s breadwinner As of February 2010 women outnumbered men on payrolls However, If an employer has to pay a man one dollar for the same work that a woman would do for 76 cents, why would anyone hire a man!? Paycheck Fairness Act Equal Employment Opportunity Comission What is the Government doing about this wage gap? can share salary information makes discrimination costly develop training programs for women on negotiating
detects and responds to wage discrimination Not Comparing apples to apples Factors that add to the gap but are not attributed to gender discrimination: Difference between career choices Career interruptions- family Hours worked Priorities Market Response to increase labor force in "female" jobs After controlling for all of these factors, there remains a small percentage of gap that is cannot be accounted for. Impossible to calculate exactly how much is due to gender discrimination Makes up about half of the workforce

Receives the majority of Bachelor’s degrees granted today

Women's earnings are crucial for a family's well-being

Women's purchasing power is strong enough that is plays a major role in driving the economy

According to "Goldman Sachs," if female participation rate can be increased to match males levels, USA's GDP will rise by over 9% Women's participation GDP by 9% Female consumers control 85% of purchasing decisions $7 trillion in spending 9/10 CEOs agree that tapping female talent is important to "getting the best brains" and competing
Auto example Valerie Rutan, Glenn Etienne, Kimo Thorpe Y= C +I + G+ NX Women's wages and participation Consumption Gross Domestic Product Race, Age, Education, and Status Status
Single women earn only 78.8 percent of what married women earn, and only 57 cents for every dollar that married males earn
For women under 35 years of age, the wage gap between mothers and women without children is greater than the gap between women and men.
Race
Among women, whites earn 86 percent as much as Asians, while blacks and Hispanics earned 73 percent and 65 percent respectively
Age
The women’s to men’s earnings ratio among 35- to 44-year-olds rose from 58% to 77%, and the ratio for 45- to 54-year-olds increased from 57% to 75% (Narrowing Wage Gap from '79 to '07)
Education
Women with less than a high school diploma earned $369 per week in 2007, compared with $932 for those with a college degree. (Compare this with men that were high school dropouts earning $481 a week, and earning $1,243 for college graduates) Other Effects of Hiring Women Positives
vs
Negatives 1. Changing how people work:
Increase in working from home technologies, as well as more opportunities for "non-traditional working hours".
2. Diversity ultimately aids a business in becoming more competitive:
A diverse workforce can capture a greater share of the consumer market
Helps to create a competitive economy in a globalized world
Recruiting from a diverse pool of candidates means a more qualified workforce
Diversity fosters a more creative and innovative workforce
3.Changing the school schedules of children
Schools are starting to base the school year around dual income parents. Increase in school hours and more school days
4. Increased Happiness for Men:
There is simply less pressure to provide when not sole provider. If the man becomes unemployed, although a dramatic decrease in household income will occur, it is not the last chance for the family. By having an alternative source in income, this atleast gives a little wiggle room in finding a new job. 1. Less time for mothers to spend with children due to their work schedules
2.Increased stress levels for women
You would expect a change in domestic roles if a woman becomes more prevalent in providing for the family, but this is usually not the case. Instead of dividing household chores between spouses, woman usually keep them even though they are working as much as the man is.
3. The increase in labor supply is lowering wage rates for everyone. Although this is common with a supply shock, for current workers who are providing for their families today, this is still concerning. Female Participation Rate has increased tremendously. Not all women are considered equal Struggles Faced by Women Not considered permanent workers.
For years(even in some cases today) the fear of a worker leaving because of pregnancy causes employers not to desire women in the work place.
It took a long period of time to change the belief that women only belonged in the household.
Household chores, children, and taking care of the ill were seen as the sole responsibilities of women.
This prevented them from attending colleges and universities
Emphasis on manufacturing jobs compared to service occupations.
Until recently, the primary focus of labor was on manufacturing. Because these jobs were considered labor intensive, they were reserved for men. Conclusion
Women have made huge strides in the work place over the last century.

While the wage gap is prevalent, there are many factors that can be attributed to it other than discrimination.

However research finds that some portion of the wage gap is unexplained and must be attributed to gender discrimination.
While there are many benefits of an increased workforce, it is not always beneficial to everyone. Specifically, children will be raised by people other than their parents.
Ultimately, we believe that helping lower the wage gap and increasing the participation rate of women will benefit the US greatly.
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