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Energy Management

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Thierry George

on 2 May 2013

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Transcript of Energy Management

Energy Management
& Sustainability
Q-BLDG Marty Bruzikas, Chris Jones, Thierry George, Steven Steele, Steven Sims Purpose How is Energy Use Measured? To generate as much power as the current SPSU grid or through the means of more efficient technology in order to provide power for the building, while keeping the current power grid setup as a backup and sub-backup. Kilowatt/hour
BTUs
Kilocalories
1 kw/hr = 860 kilocalories
-Eventually want to provide for the campus
-If successful, excess generation is possible so we would be returning power to provider(s). What is a BTU?
16 oz -> 1°F
Conversion Factors
1 BTU = 1,055.06 J
3,412 BTUs = 1 kWh
1 MBTU = 1 Dth
1 cubic foot (ft3) ~ 1,028 BTU
1 cubic meter (m3) ~ 36303.3 BTU
100 cubic feet = 1 CCF What’s so important about BTUs?
We are talking kilowatts, aren’t we? Single Phase Electric
Energy Meter Electric Meters
Electromechanical (Standard Meter)
Numeric Display Meter
Solid State Electric Meters
Electronic Meter What devices are used to measure building energy consumption? Gas Meters
Diaphragm Gas Flow Meter
Turbine Flow Meter
Rotary Gas Flow Meter
Coriolis Gas Flow Meter
Ultrasonic Gas Meter Missed opportunities
Politics of university system budgets
Wow factor
Web based
Kiosks/Campus displays
Historical Analysis (class scheduling, angles)
Clean energy initiatives and promotions Instrumentation - Alternatives Complete Systems
Hardware and Software
Heliotronics Sun Viewer
DECK Monitoring Instrumentation - Alternatives Instrumentation - Alternatives CS, EE, and MTRE combined effort

Data Acquisition
Network/Computer infrastructure
Data Logging
Web Interface

…Custom = future-proof for new alternative energy sources An Inter-Departmental Project Data Points
Weather Conditions
Current/Hourly/Peak Insolation
Solar Array Temperature
DC Power
AC Power
Power Returned to Grid
Conversion Efficiency
Emissions Avoided An Inter-Departmental Project Coal
8.2
Natural Gas
4.7
Hydropower
3.5
Nuclear
3.0
Renewable
1.0
Liquids
0.9 Today’s Primary Power Sources Electric Energy:
12,747.485 kWh (43,494,418.8 BTUs)
Totals to about 3,873 trillion kWh
Natural Gas:
2168 m3 (78,708,779.9 BTUs)
Totals to ~ 646 billion cu m Energy Consumption Per Capita 2008 Energy Consumption Per Capita 2013 Electricity: 5816 MBTUs
6+ trillion joules
1.7+ million kWh
Natural Gas: 16,476 CCF
Water: 288,800 Gallons Q BLDG Annual Consumption Electricity Sources as of 2011 *Solar cells
*Wind Energy
*Piezoelectric
*Algae Potential Alternative Energy Sources To Put Things in Perspective… Gasoline
1 gallon = 124,000 BTU

Diesel Fuel
1 gallon = 139,000 BTU

Heating Oil
1 gallon = 139,000 BTU Our Electrical Instrumentation E-Mon/D-Mon Class 2000 kWh/Demand electronic meter Our Gas Instrumentation 2 Itron Dattus Ptzl solid-state (fluidic
oscillation) gas meters
Rated at 3550 and 350 CFH
One for the Main Building
One for the energy recovery
ventilator (ERV) Whats wrong with LED replacement? Electric Energy:
11,920 kWh
Totals to about 3.15640 trillion kWh
Natural Gas:
2177m3
Totals to ~ 689.9 billion cu m Annual Energy Outlook 2013
Projection for 2040 Electricity Consumption
3841 billion kWh -> 4930 billion kWh
Annual rate of +0.9%
Gas Consumption
+~9%
Sources
Coal
42% -> 35%
Nuclear
+17%
790 billion kWh -> 903 billion kWh
Renewable
13% -> 16% Solar Energy 10kw Only: $18,095.00
Produces 1500KW per week
1KW = 3412.142Btu’s
We would need 24 systems to be
100% self sustained
$480k to go 100% green Application of Sources
on the SPSU Power Grid These ideas are great, but how can we apply them to SPSU’s Electrical Grid?
Algae
Parking Deck
Can thrive off of the CO2 while generating light as well as fresh air.

Piezoelectricity
Parking Deck, road ways, classrooms, walkways.
Anywhere the piezoelectric crystals can be compressed. Present Lighting Annual lighting cost estimate
35% of electrical costs
$60,000
2500 fixtures at 50 watts each
125 kWh
$50,000 annual maintenance Proposed Lighting Solutions Lighting I/O control via digital photocell for lobby in addition to occupancy sensors. (In progress)
LED lights (ideally for emergency lighting that is required to be on at all times) Backfeeding Power into the grid Batteries are expensive, toxic, cause pollution,
and have to be replaced about every five to seven years

The large added expense of batteries makes total generation less popular than the simpler peak shaving setups. On the other hand, as technology and demand advances,

power companies are required to buy any "negative" power that comes from home or business users References http://www.energyvortex.com/energydictionary/british_thermal_unit_%28btu%29__mbtu__mmbtu.html (BTUs)
http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/ene_ele_con-energy-electricity-consumption (Electric Consumption)
http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/ene_nat_gas_con_percap-natural-gas-consumption-per-capita (Natural Gas Consumption)
http://biomimicryfacilityresort.blogspot.com/p/bodylight.html (Bioluminescent Algae)
http://www.bluepacificsolar.com/home-solar/10kw-solar-kit.html (Solar Panels)
https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/us.html (Per Capita Estimations 2008, 2013)
http://www.engadget.com/2008/12/13/prototype-piezoelectric-road-could-generate-power-by-simply-sitt/ (Piezoelectric Roads)
http://www.engadget.com/2008/12/11/piezoelectrics-installed-in-tokyo-railway-station-floors-generat/ (Piezoelectric Floors)
http://www.americanpiezo.com/product-service/custom-piezoelectric-elements/shapes-sizes.html (Piezoelectric Ceramics)
http://phys.org/news192426996.html
http://www.designboom.com/technology/spherical-glass-solar-energy-generator-by-rawlemon/
http://www.aashe.org/resources/campus-solar-photovoltaic-installations/detail/southern-polytechnic-state-university-2012/
http://www.radiancesolar.com/souther-polytechnical-institute/ Piezoelectricity East Japan Railway Company "power-generating floor" expected to generate 1,400kW/sec per day.
Piezoelectric roads that generate power while cars simple sit at light or move.
One km of roadway could generate 400 kw.
Collective effort of embedded piezoelectric ceramic crystals and squishing power.
Nanowires Wind Energy Traditional systems Wind Energy Blade less Systems Future Solar Led Lighting Average specs
*8-20 watts each
*10-15 year lifespan
*Identical lumen with reflector Off-Grid Power Example Solar-Thermal Concentrated Photovoltaic
& Thermal ^uses less photovoltaic cells
^relatively new technology
^40% sufficiency for the cells
Full transcript